A philosophical and historical dissertation on the world pattern of democracy and socialism. After a brief throwback to early starts, he divides his material into three main sections, Before 1848; Democracy and Marxism; from 1895 to the present. He shows the course not as a direct development, but peaks and valleys, with 1848, 1870, 1895 as focus of change in concept and definition. He covers not only Europe, but outposts of British Empire, America, the Near East, with brief touching on the Orient. He holds to his belief that the few instances of real democracy have survived all the ups and downs -- and will keep the germ alive. Not for popular consumption.