From Harvard's Russian Research Center comes this new attempt to shed light on Marxism and its offshoot Communism, through an analysis of the intellectual tradition that made up 19th century thought, when the world was going from a pre-industrial to an industrial society, and the allure of Marxism was felt at a crucial point. If we are to combat the powers seeking to destroy us, we must look to the origins and structure of the Marxist system to comprehend its spread. ""What of Marxism in the Soviet Union?"" It has become, he feels, a ""mere facade behind which practical people make practical decisions"" in order to increase their own power. But the basic problem here is how to overcome Communism. Dr. Ulam adds his suggestions -- representing sound thinking- to the wealth of material on this subject. Victory comes not through a struggle over ideas, but rather a social and economic struggle. The West must bring the underdeveloped countries to an economic level where democratic concepts and aspirations can become ""meaningful beliefs in the people's minds"". There must be proper institutional appurtenances, trade unionism, effective civil service rather than elaborate constitutional guarantees. The West must help these countries through the Marxist stage of their development before they are held forever in a totalitarian state. Dr. Ulam ends his comprehensive study with this suggestion in regard to the Soviet Union:- we cannot hope to weaken Russian from within. We can threaten her through her satellites...we must weaken her control over her satellites and they will roll away from her. The author has had the courage to offer definite courses of action, and in so doing adds immeasurably to the value of his ambitiously thorough study.