An Arabic spokesman traces the meaning and empirical realisation of nationalism in a sustained and continently argued essay written from the viewpoint of the ""new"" nationalism. In Europe, Dr. al-Razzaz finds nationalism not a product of the 19th century but stemming from far earlier ideas and circumstances, evolving in the Renaissance into an awareness of loyalty to the ruler, then into colonization by national states for economic gain, and ultimately to a clash of royal and mercantile interests. He traces the class element in nationalism as his guiding factor, reviewing the form it has taken in Communist ideology and history. This, the nature of democratic socialism which in Europe became self-contradictory, the effect of World War II on nationalism all are discussed in relation to the new nationalism, based not on imperialism but in reaction to it' -- the nature and aims of Asian and African nations in formerly exploited areas where the elimination of all foreign domination is a foremost determination, where national unity supercedes class feeling, and socialism is the means of government. Interesting in that it provides a clear exposition of nationalism from an important perspective beyond our own national perimeter.