The author, a professor in the Theological Seminary of the University of Dubuque, has devoted this volume to a study of ""The Barmen Declaration"" adopted by the first Confessional Synod of the German Evangelical Church on May 31, 1934. This document he feels of prime importance, in the first place as a forthright declaration of the opposition of the Church to the errors of the ""German Christians"" and the Church government of the Third Reich. Furthermore, this declaration, prepared in the light of the new trends which were then sweeping through the world of theology, proved to be the theological basis of the ""Confessing Church"". Then, too, this declaration serves as the point of reference to the Church in Germany in facing the controversial issue of the rearmament of Germany with atomic weapons. The author also believes that the Barmen Declaration might serve as a guidepost to Christians elsewhere as they face the question: ""What does it mean to confess Christ in view of the atomic threat to the world?"" After painting in the background of the Nazi regime, Professor Cochrane outlines the predicament in which the churches of Germany found themselves with the rise to power of Hitler and the wide acceptance of his philosophy. The detailed account of the discussions leading to the acceptance of the Barmen Declaration and the interpretation of its various points will be of interest primarily to church historians.