Deeply depressing and not for casual readers, but older students will find this an informative introduction to a serious...

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DEAD ZONES

WHY EARTH'S WATERS ARE LOSING OXYGEN

An experienced science writer explains the growing phenomenon of dead zones in the world's waters, describing their effects, their likely causes, and efforts to reduce their spread.

Hand focuses on the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico, but she also touches on the Chesapeake Bay, the Great Lakes, and other areas around the world. She selects relevant information and organizes her material clearly, introducing the problem with some personal stories and including quotations from scientists throughout. In straightforward expository prose, she explains why oxygen is necessary in water and connects its disappearance to the increased cultivation of corn and the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. She mentions other causes as well, including natural ones, oil spills, and global warming. In a chapter called “Success and Failure” she describes efforts at decreasing nutrient runoff and restoring wetlands before offering some hypotheses about why these efforts have not been as successful as people had hoped. Her language is often technical but appropriate to the subject. Photographs are well-captioned, but these explanations are made less legible by the design decision to print some of them directly on the image and the rest in a tiny red font.

Deeply depressing and not for casual readers, but older students will find this an informative introduction to a serious environmental issue. (Nonfiction. 12-16)

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 2016

ISBN: 978-1-4677-7573-1

Page Count: 80

Publisher: Twenty-First Century/Lerner

Review Posted Online: Oct. 14, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 1, 2015

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A concise companion and update to Vicki Oransky Wittenstein’s Planet Hunter (2010).

EXOPLANETS

WORLDS BEYOND OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

An enticing overview of tools, techniques, and discoveries in what the author rightly characterizes “a red-hot field in astronomy.”

Alas; it is perhaps too red-hot. Not only is Kenney’s count of accepted and potential exoplanets (as of May 2016) well out of date already, but her claim that “Wolf-1061” (sic: that’s actually the name of the star and its system) is the nearest Earthlike planet in the habitable “Goldilocks Zone” has been trumped by the recent discovery of a closer candidate orbiting Proxima Centauri. Still, along with describing in nontechnical terms each tool in the researcher’s kit—from space- and ground-based telescopes of various types to instruments that detect subtle stellar wobbles, spectrum changes, microlensing, and other telling signs—the author fills in the historical background of exoplanet research and profiles some of its weirder findings. She also casts side glances at extremophile life on Earth and other, at least tangentially related, topics. The small format gives the assortment of photos, artists’ renditions, diagrams, and generic star fields a cramped look, but readers curious about how researchers could possibly detect such dinky, distant objects as planets belonging to other star systems will come away satisfied and intrigued.

A concise companion and update to Vicki Oransky Wittenstein’s Planet Hunter (2010). (index, source notes, bibliography, websites) (Nonfiction. 12-16)

Pub Date: March 1, 2017

ISBN: 978-1-5124-0086-1

Page Count: 92

Publisher: Twenty-First Century/Lerner

Review Posted Online: Nov. 16, 2016

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Dec. 1, 2016

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A subject much in demand, but there are better resources available.

FAKE NEWS AND THE MANIPULATION OF PUBLIC OPINION

An abbreviated overview of a hotly debated issue.

“Fake news,” is defined here as “fabricated news or information that is meant to be perceived as factual,” a definition that carefully excludes unintended errors, biases, or satire. It’s hardly a new complaint, but this account examines few instances outside the 2016 U.S. elections and mostly ignores print and broadcast media. Technological innovations and widespread use of social media have dramatically increased disinformation’s reach and impact; focusing on online phenomena permits tangents on algorithms creating ideological bubbles, harvesting of personal data, precise targeting of audiences, and strategic releases of hacked information. Partisan politics, foreign (mostly Russian) interference, and greed for ad revenue are presented as the chief villains, allowing brief digressions to recent cases in France, Great Britain, Kenya, and India; the last is the only noted example with violent results despite similar incidents elsewhere (including the U.S.). Indeed, while the earnest, meandering, and repetitive text adopts an ominous tone, it offers little evidence for any concrete consequences beyond the erosion of public trust. Proposed solutions include hopeful predictions for artificial intelligence and vague assurances from tech companies, but the author leans heavily on individual responsibility to become educated and remain skeptical and vigilant. Appendices provide a useful rubric for evaluating information and list some reputable fact-checking sites; the index is scattershot and sloppy.

A subject much in demand, but there are better resources available. (source notes, appendices, further reading, index) (Nonfiction. 12-16)

Pub Date: March 1, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-68282-539-6

Page Count: 80

Publisher: ReferencePoint Press

Review Posted Online: Jan. 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 15, 2019

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