Although it is difficult to believe, the title essay in this collection was written more than 20 years ago in wartime London, before anyone else had begun to imagine the social and political upheavals awaiting the world, or the consequences of the nuclear age. This proof of David Miltrany's prescience is scarcely necessary, however, for those who read on into his later investigations of political realities, present and future. Miltrany's is ""a functional approach,"" as both he and Hans J. Morgenthau (in the introduction here) point out. Seeing the major threat to peace, and thus to all of mankind, as resurgent and proliferating nationalism--such as is sweeping Asia, Africa, and Latin America--he holds that international agencies should be set up and implemented in every line of endeavor where community of interest is possible. Ultimately, if these agencies served the most important needs of most people, loyalty to them might be expected to surpass loyalty to separate national governments. And then we would actually be in a position where real world government and real world peace could be achieved. A lucid, penetrating book.