Outlines the rise of capitalism and democracy, with government paternalism fostering business, until business threw the trammels off. The democratic ideal, through Adam Smith, Rousseau, Jefferson, preceded scientific technology, and the industrial revolution was the death knell of democracy in its simple form, which would have gone on to classical socialism with collective rights in large scale production. Then the author discusses concepts of liberty and equality, accepting the Jeffersonian theory that individual freedom had to be gained through collective organization. He goes on to the concepts, growth and applications of socialism, communism, syndicalism, fascism, claiming that we confuse capitalism and fascism. Under any readjustment of society, one social type must take precedence as the norm. Neither fascism nor communism approaches the humanistic viewpoint of classical socialism. Fascism is the penalty paid for the betrayal of liberty. The author approaches his subject from an intellectual angle, it is profound but hard digging for the average reader. Not for the general public demanding short cuts, but for the student.