A well-informed examination of ongoing efforts to understand the past.




Revealing the enduring mysteries surrounding thousands of terra-cotta warriors.

In 1974, after an ancient terra-cotta army was unearthed in northwest China, archaeologists embarked on increasingly sophisticated excavations, uncovering a huge mausoleum built for Qin Shihuang (259-210 B.C.E.), known as China’s first emperor. Its existence, recognized since his death 2,200 years ago, has generated many “legends and rumors” still not resolved even by technologically advanced archaeological research. Offering an up-to-date overview of archaeological findings, Burman (China and Iran: Parallel History, Future Threat? 2009, etc.), the only foreign trustee of the Xi’an City Wall Heritage Foundation, relates the historical context for the construction of the mausoleum and investigates questions about the emperor’s personality, rule, and legacy; prevailing assumptions about the afterlife and efforts at attaining immortality (including burial in a shroud of jade, a material with purported magical powers); and the much-debated role of the warriors. The sprawling mausoleum, writes the author, “was conceived on a scale more massive than any other monument at that stage of human history.” Although archaeologists have identified three main precincts—the pit containing the warriors, the burial chamber and other rooms inside the inner wall, and the surrounding area beyond the wall—much of the structure, lying beneath villages, factories, and roads, remains unknown. The burial site, Burman asserts, “was first and foremost to be conceived as a home,” which for the emperor meant a palace, including a temple and residences for imperial officials and concubines—where, in the afterlife, “the dead would need their favourite objects, as well as things of value, in the other world.” The warriors pose a puzzle: Besides speculating on their function in the mausoleum, scholars question “where the knowledge and inspiration for these lifelike figures came from,” since only miniature statues had been found in earlier tombs and since kilns at the time were too small to fire sculpture of such stature. Based on evidence of Alexander the Great’s campaigns in Asia, some scholars suggest that cultural exchange existed between Greece and China.

A well-informed examination of ongoing efforts to understand the past.

Pub Date: Aug. 7, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-68177-796-2

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Pegasus

Review Posted Online: May 7, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: June 1, 2018

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Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.


“Quality of life means more than just consumption”: Two MIT economists urge that a smarter, more politically aware economics be brought to bear on social issues.

It’s no secret, write Banerjee and Duflo (co-authors: Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way To Fight Global Poverty, 2011), that “we seem to have fallen on hard times.” Immigration, trade, inequality, and taxation problems present themselves daily, and they seem to be intractable. Economics can be put to use in figuring out these big-issue questions. Data can be adduced, for example, to answer the question of whether immigration tends to suppress wages. The answer: “There is no evidence low-skilled migration to rich countries drives wage and employment down for the natives.” In fact, it opens up opportunities for those natives by freeing them to look for better work. The problem becomes thornier when it comes to the matter of free trade; as the authors observe, “left-behind people live in left-behind places,” which explains why regional poverty descended on Appalachia when so many manufacturing jobs left for China in the age of globalism, leaving behind not just left-behind people but also people ripe for exploitation by nationalist politicians. The authors add, interestingly, that the same thing occurred in parts of Germany, Spain, and Norway that fell victim to the “China shock.” In what they call a “slightly technical aside,” they build a case for addressing trade issues not with trade wars but with consumption taxes: “It makes no sense to ask agricultural workers to lose their jobs just so steelworkers can keep theirs, which is what tariffs accomplish.” Policymakers might want to consider such counsel, especially when it is coupled with the observation that free trade benefits workers in poor countries but punishes workers in rich ones.

Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.

Pub Date: Nov. 12, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-61039-950-0

Page Count: 432

Publisher: PublicAffairs

Review Posted Online: Aug. 29, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2019

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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