F. H. Carr is a liberal of the social planning and a leftist of the variety. In these University of Cambridge lectures his opinions are qualified and his shaded; concerned with ""What is History?"", Mr. Carr a large and learned subject, unruffled wisdom and the stance of a somewhat . For Mr. Carr is shocked by anything; if he is he's more so via unemployment than the Among other things we learn in history the point of view is relative to the observer; fights are never between abstract ideas: ""individuals"" and ""society"" do not struggle, only their representative groups do; politics begin, as , said, where the masses are; no absolute laws exist and science is essentially reciprocal; all hypotheses crystallize further thinking. Mr. Carr relies more on Freud, Marx and Progress than Toynbee's cyclical theories, which are a characteristic ideology of a society in decline. Nor does Mr. Carr make the conservative rejection of programmes and ideals; be merely rejects Namier, Popper and other representatives of the new conservative revival. Though his intellectual tour is crisp, consequential and , it is not nearly so crackling as his previous The New Society. But it does answer his question exhaustively.