This book is the outgrowth of a seminar on military affairs (Institute for Advanced Study) and is a symposium of articles by 20 leading historians and analysts of military affairs, dealing with a broad range of allied subjects, -- generals, statesmen, economists, philosophers, scientists, theorists, strategy, tactics, logistics, morale, economics, etc. Names familiar even to the outsider, -- Machiavelli, von Bulow, Frederick the Great, Clausewitz, Adam Smith, Marx, Moltke, Galieni, Foch, Ludendorff, and many others briefly placed in military history, their contributions appraised. Various shifts in strategy, new approaches which changed world history, the beginnings of factors with which we still deal today (fortifications, blitzkreig, the mass army, and so on). There is almost too brief mention of the contribution made by such men of today as De Gaulle, when he was demanding mechanized warfare. There is no attempt to study new developments today, except as they grew out of the past. But the method of handling, in many instances, makes it interesting reading for armchair strategists, to whom the build-up to total war is of immediate moment.