Among the sweeping reforms instituted by Mustafa Kemal was the adoption of surnames by all Turkish males. The name bestowed on the great leader himself was Ataturk which means Father of Turkey. The most interesting portions of this biography do not deal with his distinguished military career or with his rise to power, but rather with the war he waged against the intangible, deeply imbedded attitudes and customs of his people. Obsessed with the knowledge that Turkey could not hope to gain a respected place among civilized nations unless it abandoned its archaic way of life and joined the 20th century, Kemal championed a host of radical reforms. The Koran was a formidable enemy, but once Kemal convinced the Turks of its obsolete laws and dictates, the foundation of modern civilization was established. More than a personal biography, this is a history of the evolution of modern Turkey for anyone concerned with the emergence of contemporary nations.