The first chairman of the German Democratic Party defends his people in an examination of the Germans before Hitler -- and since -- and in historical refutation of the ""nationalism"", ""Prussianism"", imputed to them by many. Bismarck he feels unified Germany but had no aggressive intent for Germany beyond the border; the first world war was a blunder on the part of the Kaiser, with no popular reaction save indifference; the Republic, between wars, was doomed at the start by split interests and parties, by the economic poverty and the moral dispiritedness of the people. Followed the easy accession to power of Hitler, who never achieved any free, popular backing on the part of the people. After the war he feels that Germany must be educated and enlightened -- from within rather than without. Not a popular argument today, nor a sufficiently convincing denial of the fact that pan-Germanis has existed before Hitler, and is still a predominant factor with or without him.