Lichtheim takes the French Revolution as his point of departure. He shows how the early socialists transcended the individualistic democratic radicalism of the time, the limitations of their economic thinking, their vexed relationship to the embryonic labor movement. From Babeuf to the early Marx, he traced Anglo-French differences in the ongoing critiques of liberalism. The decision to end the study with 1848 seems sound; one hopes for a sequel which will represent as much of an improvement in depth and breadth over his Marxism as this does. Magnificently annotated, the heart of the book is with the 1830's and '40's; without succumbing to the temptation toward retrospective procrusteanization of various theories and manifestos. Lichtheim constructs a brilliant analysis of the roots of anarchism, ""economism,"" communitarianism, populism and ""reformism,"" to say nothing of Marxism proper. Its scholarly value makes it indispensable to serious students.