This is a MUST reference book for all libraries, public and college libraries, and for well-tooled private libraries also. Approximately 250 American scholars have contributed to its making, and consensus is indicated in the inclusions, -- 1200 European authors dating from 1870 on, and taken from thirty literatures. Special articles evaluate the literary activities of continental Europe, trace the modern history of each national literature in turn; briefer biographical notes with critical appraisals of their works take the individual writers. Issues of nationalism inherent in their works are treated objectively but sympathetically. The list of contributors bears witness to the breadth of vision- the scope of scholarship which have gone into this indispensable reference tool.