A retrospective evaluation of the influence of the Newbery and Caldecott awards on the field of children's literature, this covers the need that existed for the Newbery awards which Mr. Melcher of Publishers' Weekly inaugurated in 1921. There is a thumbnail biography of Newbery, the British bookseller, and an introduction to illustrator Caldecott, and the medal bearing his name, which was instituted to honor illustrators of the best book in a given year. In addition to an exposition of the distribution of awards and the appraisal of books, there is a resume of winners of both awards through the years. Should popularity with children be the strongest factor in criticism of a book? No, say A.L.A. members. Otherwise, comic books would win each year, thumbs down. Pleasant and almost chatty book about the awards and their winners which will certainly interest that selected readership which is concerned with the field of children's literature.