The world has cancer and that cancer cell is man."" Thus a high official of a great foundation, recently. One-half of the world's population suffers from outright hunger: two-thirds from under-nourishment. Three-quarters of the population is in the developing nations. There were two billion people in 1930; there will be fourteen billion by 2030, unless. . . Reverend O'Brien reviews the pre-Vatican II stance of the Church on birth control, presents more recent developments: a re-emphasis on ""responsible parenthood,"" the ""regressive"" Statement of the Catholic Bishops, government and press disagreement, appeals for reappraisal and a progressive decision on methods of contraception by Pope Paul. The position and role of the government in family planning comes under concurrent consideration. A firm ad hoc reckoning, and a plea.