ACROSS BOUNDARIES

THE JOURNEY OF A SOUTH AFRICAN WOMAN LEADER

A heartfelt though sometimes ungainly memoir of politics and passion in South Africa. Even if she hadn't been a prominent anti-apartheid activist, Ramphele would still have lived a remarkable life. Born in the rural Northern Transvaal, frustrated by poverty, poor schools, restrictive cultural mores, sexism, and racism, she overcame all these obstacles to become one of the first black women admitted to medical school. South African universities in the 1960s were hotbeds of anti-apartheid activism, and Ramphele soon gravitated toward the black-consciousness-inflected SASO (South African Student Organization). Here she worked with many emerging leaders, including Steve Biko, with whom she fell deeply in love. Though they were both married to others, their affair continued as they graduated to full-time activism. When Biko was banned, restricted to King Williams Town, Ramphele moved nearby and opened a medical clinic for the poor. Her account of the conflicts between the personal and the political, between love and activism, is unusually honest and deeply moving. After she became pregnant with Biko's child, everything seemed to fall apart. She too was banned, sent far away, to a small, dusty village. Then Biko was arrested and murdered by the security police. The shock of his death almost cost Ramphele the baby, and she was incapacitated with grief for months. Eventually, she realized that the best way to heal herself was to continue to fight. She began another clinic and ran it for many years until she was unbanned. Free at last, she moved to Cape Town, earned a Ph.D. in anthropology, and was appointed deputy vice- chancellor at the University of Cape Town. While Ramphele does tend to slip into anthropology-speak and her post-Biko years are described with a certain flatness, her strength, courage, and decency always shine clearly through. (17 pages b&w photos)

Pub Date: Feb. 28, 1997

ISBN: 1-55861-165-7

Page Count: 288

Publisher: Feminist Press

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1997

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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HOW TO BE AN ANTIRACIST

Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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A PEOPLE'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES

For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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