The author is the late Professor of New Testament studies at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome, and prominent as teacher in a whole new generation of scholars in the contemporary Catholic Biblical movement. Concerned to repair the neglect by scholarship of the past of the Jewish sources from which Christianity arose draws widely from seven groups of documents: the Old and the New Testaments, Philo, Josephus, the Aprypha, Rabbinical writings, and the inscriptions and opinions of ancient authors. God, Angels, Israel, The Torah, Man and Ethics, the Religious life Special Ethics, Life after Death, Messianism, Eschatology;- these are the general topics developed. Trends and developments of these ideas in the Jewish religious outlook are examined, and reasonably accounted for. Although himself a Jesult with Christian premises, the author avoids pronouncing judgment upon the Jewish religious situation, and where opinion is given, it is marked by understanding and balance. First published in France in 1950, this translation should be a welcome and significant contribution to the growing interest in the relationships of Jewish and Christian antecedents. The style makes it available to the non-expert reader as well as the scholar.