Do rats guide blind companions and elephants mourn their dead? British zoologist Maurice Burton, a veteran animal watcher, approaches these and other questions of ""higher-order behavior"" with a healthy skepticism. Accordingly, when he stumbles upon reports of compassionate, grieving, or heroic animals, he checks out sources--newspapers are notoriously unreliable--and sees the behavior in a larger context. For example, a vixen burying her fox cub is not performing a ceremonial gesture to the dead: foxes, which are carnivorous, routinely cover surplus carrion for future meals. Burton refutes many prevalent beliefs; he also painstakingly explores all possibilities and acknowledges that art individual animal may diverge from normal species behavior and that normal behavior can be reversed by circumstances such as illness or extreme danger. There are trustworthy reports of animals pining away from grief, showing ""auntie"" behavior, or fetching help for the incapacitated; many are unusual rather than routine--but jackdaws regularly share food, cats and dogs can display ""affection."" A consistently intriguing book which rejects flimsy evidence and does away with Disneyesque misconceptions.