A reassessment of the history of the Negro and consequently of American history as a whole in terms of recent historical scholarship on the subject, with a commentary by the editor. The study moves from Africa to America, where the entrenchment and effect of slavery are treated. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. counters the revisionists in his assertion that slavery was a primary cause of the Civil War; James McPherson traces the abolitionists' struggle to establish the Negro as equal; Dudley Cornish covers the Civil War. DuBois, Woodward and Franklin reevaluate Reconstruction. The period from 1880 to 1930 entails capitulation to racism, the characters and contributions of Washington, DuBois, Garvey, migration and the Renaissance. The years from 1933 are viewed in the light of the move toward a ""second Reconstruction"" (contrary to Southern opinion, the 1954 Supreme Court decision was not a sudden and unjustified break with history); the roles of King (a ""conservative militant""), the Black Muslims, Malcolm X are weighed. Notes on Negro American influence, on the emergence of African nationalism and an essay on why the Negroes are still angry conclude. The historical fat is in the fire here; there is no superfluity in these pieces, which apply a liberal review of conservative interpretations.