A well-researched and helpful, if slightly jumbled, tour through the brain’s workings.



A guide focuses on the factors that influence human thought patterns.

Burton (For Better or Worse, 2017, etc.), a British psychiatrist, borrows the manual’s title from a 1967 R.D. Laing book; the term referred to a breakthrough to higher consciousness. To live up to their “full human potential,” Burton insists that people must avoid common pitfalls in reasoning and recognize where prejudice or false beliefs might be holding them back. He starts by exploring the types of fallacies often found in arguments, illustrating them with quotations from high-profile politicians such as President Donald Trump. A set of 10 questions designed to be comparable to the Thinking Skills Assessment (administered to would-be students of philosophy, politics, and economics at Oxford University) is particularly illuminating. Though these seem like straightforward logic problems, even sharp thinkers may struggle to score above 50%. The book’s other topics include intelligence, types of memory, rhetorical techniques, truth versus “fake news,” intuition, wisdom, and more. Cognitive bias and hallucinations are cited as instances of people’s brains tricking them into making poor judgments. The author’s frame of reference is wide, ranging from the ancient Greeks to current events, and he gives plenty of examples. He makes intriguing, if slightly off-topic, observations about what a language’s grammar indicates about it: for instance, French tends to repeat personal pronouns, which Burton suggests might be a sign of egocentrism. “Our language reflects and at the same time shapes our thoughts and, ultimately, our culture,” he asserts. Certain sections seem to have less obvious relevance, such as a discussion of snobbery and a chapter on music, and the overall structure is fairly arbitrary. It feels as if pieces of various, vaguely familiar books—by the likes of Daniel Kahneman and Oliver Sacks—have been recombined. By contrast, the most useful parts offer practical advice: 10 ways to improve the memory (for example, by involving the senses or making mnemonic devices) and seven tips for being open to inspiration (including waking up without an alarm clock and breaking free of routines).

A well-researched and helpful, if slightly jumbled, tour through the brain’s workings.

Pub Date: Oct. 1, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-913260-00-2

Page Count: 188

Publisher: Acheron Press

Review Posted Online: Sept. 8, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 15, 2019

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If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.


The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power.

Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world’s greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: “Conceal Your Intentions,” “Always Say Less Than Necessary,” “Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy,” and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it’s used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict each other. We are told, for instance, to “be conspicuous at all cost,” then told to “behave like others.” More seriously, Greene never really defines “power,” and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn’t. To ask why this is so would be a far more useful project.

If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

Pub Date: Sept. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-670-88146-5

Page Count: 430

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 15, 1998

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...


A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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