The lecture delivered by Pearl Buck on receipt of the Nobel Prize for Literature. She chose as her subject that little appreciated field of the Chinese novel. The attitude of China towards the novel is reflected in the quotation: ""Literature is art. All art has social significance. This book has no social significance. Therefore it is not literature."" ... Novels in China are written for the illiterate masses, to be read aloud. Three great works, by anonymous authors (or by groups of writers) reflect the field, and there are others that are lesser works. But in these novels, Mrs. Buck sees the pattern of the real life and soul of China. An interesting study.