History has managed to dismiss the troubadours of 12th century France as a picturesque phenomenon. This well known French scholar brings them back to life and stature in this study, completed and translated (by Briffault) just before his death. It disposes of many misconceptions about the jongleurs who wandered through greater Provence, giving lyrical expression to news and mores. They were first of all poets. They transplanted the sensuality of the Moorish conquerors of Spain into the Provencal conception of courtly but still frankly erotic love. They entertained, informed and excited kings and peasants both, and after they were silenced by the Albigensian crusade, left a heritage which spread to Italy (Dante) and England (Shakespeare) which threaded its way anonymously into the verse forms of succeeding centuries..... A good amount of the material here appears in the notes at the end which keeps the text very readable and Briffault has contributed a great deal of skill and scholarship to a subject of more enduring than immediate interest.