A rough outline of the history of modern medicine can be drawn from the capsulized careers of these ten famous men. Each contributed a foundation stone in one area of medical knowledge; each suffered and subdued the opposition which arose to break with established tradition. Thus Vesalius contributed to the field of anatomy, Pare to surgery, Jenner to immunization, Laennec to diagnosis; William T.G. Morton to anesthesia; Pasteur established his famous germ theory; and Lister made the dream of antiseptic surgery a reality. Later landmarks were Koch's isolation of tuberculosis bacilli, Banting's development of insulin treatment for diabetes and Fleming's discovery of penicillin. Brief and factual, the combined effect of these sketches is to encourage intelligent innovation and persistence in and outside of the field of medical research.