MAPPING THE NEXT MILLENNIUM

THE DISCOVERY OF NEW GEOGRAPHIES

In beautiful and sometimes moving prose, Hall (Invisible Frontiers, 1987) argues here that the common ground of space exploration, medical tomography, cosmology, greenhouse-effect modeling, and biotechnology is the map—and then offers a Grand Tour of the charting of these realms. It's a common story, but never better told, how the two Voyager spacecraft almost never made it off the ground because of wrangles deep within NASA; how a graduate student named Gary Flandro helped save the project when he stumbled onto the gravity- assist method of boosting trajectories, and saw how the planets lined up in the 1980's so that they could be visited in one mission. With a sort of inspired doodling, Flandro had produced a primitive navigational chart; the Voyagers plunged into the almost- unknown, and when they got there, Neptune wasn't where it was supposed to be. That's what maps are for, Hall says: To condense what we've said to be true into graphic, comprehensible form—and then, if necessary, we can change the map. Hall reflects passionately on the way exploration has generated maps that are then lost to imperial interests, or to the military (the US Navy, for example, resisted satellite mapping of the ocean floor because it feared it would make submarine routes obvious). Maps of genes, Hall says, point toward a sort of de facto eugenics, and there is precious little debate on the matter. And a new map of titanium deposits on the moon may only foster the sorts of abuses that Lewis and Clark inadvertently brought to the West. ``Maps inspire action,'' Hall says. It may even be, in a sick world, that better maps mean more sickness. Hall quotes the philosopher Sandra Harding: ``More science in a socially regressive society...will increase the movement of the resources from the many to the few.'' For the generalist striving mightily to keep up, this is a godsend. (Sixteen pages of color and 75 b&w illustrations—not seen.)

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 1991

ISBN: 0-394-57635-7

Page Count: 384

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 1, 1991

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Ackerman writes with a light but assured touch, her prose rich in fact but economical in delivering it. Fans of birds in all...

THE GENIUS OF BIRDS

Science writer Ackerman (Ah-Choo!: The Uncommon Life of Your Common Cold, 2010, etc.) looks at the new science surrounding avian intelligence.

The takeaway: calling someone a birdbrain is a compliment. And in any event, as Ackerman observes early on, “intelligence is a slippery concept, even in our own species, tricky to define and tricky to measure.” Is a bird that uses a rock to break open a clamshell the mental equivalent of a tool-using primate? Perhaps that’s the wrong question, for birds are so unlike humans that “it’s difficult for us to fully appreciate their mental capabilities,” given that they’re really just small, feathered dinosaurs who inhabit a wholly different world from our once-arboreal and now terrestrial one. Crows and other corvids have gotten all the good publicity related to bird intelligence in recent years, but Ackerman, who does allow that some birds are brighter than others, points favorably to the much-despised pigeon as an animal that “can remember hundreds of different objects for long periods of time, discriminate between different painting styles, and figure out where it’s going, even when displaced from familiar territory by hundreds of miles.” Not bad for a critter best known for bespattering statues in public parks. Ackerman travels far afield to places such as Barbados and New Caledonia to study such matters as memory, communication, and decision-making, the last largely based on visual cues—though, as she notes, birds also draw ably on other senses, including smell, which in turn opens up insight onto “a weird evolutionary paradox that scientists have puzzled over for more than a decade”—a matter of the geometry of, yes, the bird brain.

Ackerman writes with a light but assured touch, her prose rich in fact but economical in delivering it. Fans of birds in all their diversity will want to read this one.

Pub Date: April 12, 2016

ISBN: 978-1-59420-521-7

Page Count: 336

Publisher: Penguin Press

Review Posted Online: Feb. 17, 2016

Kirkus Reviews Issue: March 1, 2016

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Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science...

A SHORT HISTORY OF NEARLY EVERYTHING

Bryson (I'm a Stranger Here Myself, 1999, etc.), a man who knows how to track down an explanation and make it confess, asks the hard questions of science—e.g., how did things get to be the way they are?—and, when possible, provides answers.

As he once went about making English intelligible, Bryson now attempts the same with the great moments of science, both the ideas themselves and their genesis, to resounding success. Piqued by his own ignorance on these matters, he’s egged on even more so by the people who’ve figured out—or think they’ve figured out—such things as what is in the center of the Earth. So he goes exploring, in the library and in company with scientists at work today, to get a grip on a range of topics from subatomic particles to cosmology. The aim is to deliver reports on these subjects in terms anyone can understand, and for the most part, it works. The most difficult is the nonintuitive material—time as part of space, say, or proteins inventing themselves spontaneously, without direction—and the quantum leaps unusual minds have made: as J.B.S. Haldane once put it, “The universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we can suppose.” Mostly, though, Bryson renders clear the evolution of continental drift, atomic structure, singularity, the extinction of the dinosaur, and a mighty host of other subjects in self-contained chapters that can be taken at a bite, rather than read wholesale. He delivers the human-interest angle on the scientists, and he keeps the reader laughing and willing to forge ahead, even over their heads: the human body, for instance, harboring enough energy “to explode with the force of thirty very large hydrogen bombs, assuming you knew how to liberate it and really wished to make a point.”

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective.

Pub Date: May 6, 2003

ISBN: 0-7679-0817-1

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Broadway

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2003

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