A thoroughly leftist, intermittently applicable look at the state of American criminal justice.



A sobering review of the ills of the American criminal justice system and a few prescriptions for reform.

Police arrest around 14 million people each year in the United States, leaving 65 million people with criminal records and 20 million with a history of incarceration. The American criminal justice system, Platt (Affiliated Scholar/Center for the Study of Law & Society, Univ. of California; Grave Matters: Excavating California’s Buried Past, 2011, etc.) argues, is unique in its approach to prisons and jails. Tracing the history of incarceration and its complex roots, he thoroughly discusses how class, race, and gender shape the criminal justice system. Race and militarism play particularly central roles in what the author views as a dysfunctional approach to criminalization. He also tracks the historic influence of politics, fear, private policing, and international business. Platt believes correcting these problems will be difficult, citing a long history of failed reforms that remind us to “make sure the velvet glove does not cover an iron fist.” The author encourages readers to re-examine criminal stereotypes and to both value the incarcerated and appreciate their attempts at resistance. While reviewing the modern political approach to law and order, Platt chronicles his hopes and frustrations, which seem to ebb and flow with liberal and conservative administrations. The author is decidedly leftist; he even joined a Marxist party until its implosion in the 1980s. Platt calls for bold thinking but never quite offers groundbreaking solutions that might otherwise make the book more useful. Most of his suggestions, tucked away at the end of the book, are familiar and widely analyzed elsewhere—e.g., reining in private security operations, reducing incarceration and deportation of immigrants, and welfare reform. Ultimately, the author focuses less on these solutions than on the intrinsic and historic barriers to any reform. Still, the historical analysis will give pause to even the most ardent supporters of law enforcement agencies.

A thoroughly leftist, intermittently applicable look at the state of American criminal justice.

Pub Date: Jan. 8, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-250-08511-5

Page Count: 384

Publisher: St. Martin's

Review Posted Online: Oct. 2, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 15, 2018

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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