Elegantly and persuasively makes the case that “evolution is part lawn, part bush, part tree, part ladder. It defies simple...

READ REVIEW

CREATURES OF ACCIDENT

THE RISE OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM

A short, reader-friendly discourse on the accidental rise of creatures great and small—emphasis on accidental.

Which is to say that invertebrate-zoologist Arthur (Zoology/National University of Ireland, Galway) tackles the issue of complexity. How do we account, he asks, for the development over eons of bigger organisms with diverse cells and organs? Before Darwin, the answer was God and nature’s ladder, which had a rung for every living thing from lowest bacteria to highest human beings. Darwin went far to discredit the ladder, but it has taken modern genetics and embryology to come up with a nonreligious explanation for why evolution has produced complexity over time. This happened initially, Arthur notes, by a random mutation that allowed single cells to clump together to become multi-cellular. Then came mutations that changed simple critters’ shapes from round to bilateral, which allowed for left and right halves of the body, a rear and a head end that oriented the creature forward. Over millions of years, some creatures got bigger, and their heads got packed not only with mouths for food, but with eyes and ears and noses, the better to explore the environment, and a brain to control them. Copying mistakes could account for all these changes, Arthur observes, particularly duplications of genes that create redundancies of function. Fish have four gill slits on each side but don’t need that many to breathe. So in some species, the forward pair evolved to become jaws. Besides examples from nature, Arthur points to the commonality in the sets of master genes that program the development of the embryo, from fruit flies to humans. He emphasizes that evolution is messy, neither gradual nor saltatory, in prose that is always gentle and professorial—except when it comes to today’s creationists and Intelligent Design advocates, whom he blasts as blatantly dishonest.

Elegantly and persuasively makes the case that “evolution is part lawn, part bush, part tree, part ladder. It defies simple models.”

Pub Date: Sept. 5, 2006

ISBN: 0-8090-4321-1

Page Count: 272

Publisher: Hill and Wang/Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: June 15, 2006

Did you like this book?

No Comments Yet

An authoritative, engaging study of plant life, accessible to younger readers as well as adults.

THE INCREDIBLE JOURNEY OF PLANTS

A neurobiologist reveals the interconnectedness of the natural world through stories of plant migration.

In this slim but well-packed book, Mancuso (Plant Science/Univ. of Florence; The Revolutionary Genius of Plants: A New Understanding of Plant Intelligence and Behavior, 2018, etc.) presents an illuminating and surprisingly lively study of plant life. He smoothly balances expansive historical exploration with recent scientific research through stories of how various plant species are capable of migrating to locations throughout the world by means of air, water, and even via animals. They often continue to thrive in spite of dire obstacles and environments. One example is the response of plants following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Three decades later, the abandoned “Exclusion Zone” is now entirely covered by an enormous assortment of thriving plants. Mancuso also tracks the journeys of several species that might be regarded as invasive. “Why…do we insist on labeling as ‘invasive’ all those plants that, with great success, have managed to occupy new territories?” asks the author. “On a closer look, the invasive plants of today are the native flora of the future, just as the invasive species of the past are a fundamental part of our ecosystem today.” Throughout, Mancuso persuasively articulates why an understanding and appreciation of how nature is interconnected is vital to the future of our planet. “In nature everything is connected,” he writes. “This simple law that humans don’t seem to understand has a corollary: the extinction of a species, besides being a calamity in and of itself, has unforeseeable consequences for the system to which the species belongs.” The book is not without flaws. The loosely imagined watercolor renderings are vague and fail to effectively complement Mancuso’s richly descriptive prose or satisfy readers’ curiosity. Even without actual photos and maps, it would have been beneficial to readers to include more finely detailed plant and map renderings.

An authoritative, engaging study of plant life, accessible to younger readers as well as adults.

Pub Date: March 17, 2020

ISBN: 978-1-63542-991-6

Page Count: 176

Publisher: Other Press

Review Posted Online: Dec. 8, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 2020

Did you like this book?

No Comments Yet

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science...

A SHORT HISTORY OF NEARLY EVERYTHING

Bryson (I'm a Stranger Here Myself, 1999, etc.), a man who knows how to track down an explanation and make it confess, asks the hard questions of science—e.g., how did things get to be the way they are?—and, when possible, provides answers.

As he once went about making English intelligible, Bryson now attempts the same with the great moments of science, both the ideas themselves and their genesis, to resounding success. Piqued by his own ignorance on these matters, he’s egged on even more so by the people who’ve figured out—or think they’ve figured out—such things as what is in the center of the Earth. So he goes exploring, in the library and in company with scientists at work today, to get a grip on a range of topics from subatomic particles to cosmology. The aim is to deliver reports on these subjects in terms anyone can understand, and for the most part, it works. The most difficult is the nonintuitive material—time as part of space, say, or proteins inventing themselves spontaneously, without direction—and the quantum leaps unusual minds have made: as J.B.S. Haldane once put it, “The universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we can suppose.” Mostly, though, Bryson renders clear the evolution of continental drift, atomic structure, singularity, the extinction of the dinosaur, and a mighty host of other subjects in self-contained chapters that can be taken at a bite, rather than read wholesale. He delivers the human-interest angle on the scientists, and he keeps the reader laughing and willing to forge ahead, even over their heads: the human body, for instance, harboring enough energy “to explode with the force of thirty very large hydrogen bombs, assuming you knew how to liberate it and really wished to make a point.”

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective.

Pub Date: May 6, 2003

ISBN: 0-7679-0817-1

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Broadway

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2003

Did you like this book?

No Comments Yet
more