This study is an attempt to examine the educational controversy in America today on the plane of theory and its purpose is ""to state the problems, to trace them to the larger issues from which they spring, to suggest directions in which possible resolutions may lie"". Starting with the premise that education in an industrial democracy must be directed in terms of its times, they proceed to consider: the ends of education, the institutions designed to serve those ends, the methods adopted for the purpose; and more basically; what is education? what is it for? how is it given? Since the great disputes in educational theory go beyond education to questions of moral and political thought and beyond them to ultimate issues in philosophy, they delineate lucidly between the philosophic approaches to education: the aristocratic vs the democratic, the realist vs the idealist, the traditionalist vs the modernist and in assessing these positions in terms of each other, demonstrate how they inter-relate, how they disagree, and most important, where they agree. In considering also adult education, teacher training, the uses of increasing leisure, and the general advancement of learning, they have drawn up an intelligible picture of the education dilemma, which admittedly and purposely provides no panacea but eloquently asks all the right questions. Excellent bibliography. As the progenitor of the Great Books program, Adler has taken significant direction in the adult education program of this country.