A clear, straightforward history of a law that defined a decade.



The latest in the publisher’s Concise Histories series focuses on the effort to prohibit the production, transportation, and sale of alcohol in the United States, which resulted in the ratification—and repeal—of a constitutional amendment.

Rorabaugh (Law/Univ. of Washington; American Hippies, 2015, etc.), author of The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (1979), offers a brief, authoritative overview of the causes, impact, and legacy of the law. Drunkenness was prevalent and problematic beginning in Colonial times. In the 1800s, “the average adult white male drank a half pint of whiskey a day.” Excessive drinking had a negative impact on health and led to social and familial problems, including crime, domestic abuse, and sometimes financial ruin. Reformers mounted campaigns to persuade drinkers to switch from whiskey to beer; the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, founded in 1874, went further, pushing for anti-liquor laws. Although reform movements gained a patchwork of supporters, they also met opposition. Irish and German immigrants, arriving from “heavy drinking cultures,” were unwilling to give up imbibing. Evangelical Protestants urged abstinence from alcohol, but other religious groups saw no contradiction between drinking and holiness. The alcohol industry, unsurprisingly, fought against efforts for prohibition, backing “wet” political candidates, but during World War I, giving up alcohol became a form of wartime sacrifice. “Moral fervor ran high,” writes the author, and that fervor led to the passages of the Volstead Act and the 18th Amendment. Enforcement was a problem from the outset: home brewers sold moonshine, liquor flowed over the Canadian border, and gangsters extended their activities from gambling and prostitution to the liquor industry. By the mid-1920s, gang wars were more threatening than alcohol, and public sentiment began to change. Moreover, Franklin Roosevelt, campaigning for the presidential nomination, discovered that unless he “took a wetter position on alcohol, his candidacy was doomed.” By 1933, the new president stopped enforcement and set in motion repeal of the amendment.

A clear, straightforward history of a law that defined a decade.

Pub Date: Feb. 1, 2018

ISBN: 978-0-19-068993-3

Page Count: 144

Publisher: Oxford Univ.

Review Posted Online: Oct. 30, 2017

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 15, 2017

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For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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Buffs of the Old West will enjoy Clavin’s careful research and vivid writing.



Rootin’-tootin’ history of the dry-gulchers, horn-swogglers, and outright killers who populated the Wild West’s wildest city in the late 19th century.

The stories of Wyatt Earp and company, the shootout at the O.K. Corral, and Geronimo and the Apache Wars are all well known. Clavin, who has written books on Dodge City and Wild Bill Hickok, delivers a solid narrative that usefully links significant events—making allies of white enemies, for instance, in facing down the Apache threat, rustling from Mexico, and other ethnically charged circumstances. The author is a touch revisionist, in the modern fashion, in noting that the Earps and Clantons weren’t as bloodthirsty as popular culture has made them out to be. For example, Wyatt and Bat Masterson “took the ‘peace’ in peace officer literally and knew that the way to tame the notorious town was not to outkill the bad guys but to intimidate them, sometimes with the help of a gun barrel to the skull.” Indeed, while some of the Clantons and some of the Earps died violently, most—Wyatt, Bat, Doc Holliday—died of cancer and other ailments, if only a few of old age. Clavin complicates the story by reminding readers that the Earps weren’t really the law in Tombstone and sometimes fell on the other side of the line and that the ordinary citizens of Tombstone and other famed Western venues valued order and peace and weren’t particularly keen on gunfighters and their mischief. Still, updating the old notion that the Earp myth is the American Iliad, the author is at his best when he delineates those fraught spasms of violence. “It is never a good sign for law-abiding citizens,” he writes at one high point, “to see Johnny Ringo rush into town, both him and his horse all in a lather.” Indeed not, even if Ringo wound up killing himself and law-abiding Tombstone faded into obscurity when the silver played out.

Buffs of the Old West will enjoy Clavin’s careful research and vivid writing.

Pub Date: April 21, 2020

ISBN: 978-1-250-21458-4

Page Count: 400

Publisher: St. Martin's

Review Posted Online: Jan. 20, 2020

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 15, 2020

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