The biographies of four men whose curiosity and interest in South America provides a common bond -- retelling of scientific history in exuberant recreation, of pioneering in ideas as well as countries, of the development and substantiation of new theories, of men, undaunted by scorn, hostility or danger. No has selected as his subject Charles-Marie de la Condamine of France; Alexander von Hunbeldt of Germany; Charles Robert Darwin of England; Richard Spruse of Yorkshire.. each with his inspiration from the others, and condamine, anxious to substantiate Newton's theories about the shape of the earth. Each one, in youth, went to the new world, and by their findings, changed the world's knowledge and thinking. Here are their backgrounds, the expeditions, the work, the valuable information they brought both, about the land, the rivers, mountains, people, the pants and animals. They made their contribution to the opening up of a new constant for further exploration and the break up of the Spanish monopoly. Good companion to Book of Naturalists.