If, as his anthologist (biographer of Jefferson) feels, James Madison has not been so fully appreciated as a political philosopher as his thought merits, the present anthology should reach a general public and help it to realize his greatness. In an introduction notable for directness and clarity, Mr. Padover recalls Madison's background in the age of Enlightenment, his personal friendship with Jefferson, whose public views and works he upheld and whose positions of trust he succeeded to, and compares the two men as thinkers and individuals. He presents Madison's main politico-philosophical tenets -- his theory of checks and balances based on recognition not only of the fallibility of men but of special interest groups; his conviction that the function of government is to protect each faction, major or minor; his belief in religious freedom. Madison's writings follow (included are Federalist papers written in collaboration with Hamilton) under sectional headings that cover the Constitution, foreign affairs, war and peace, political problems and economics, public opinion and the press, religion, social warfare, and, as an appendix, axioms. Public libraries will find this a fine buy.