How learning disabilites are manifested in adults, and how to overcome them—real, practical help from a rapidly progressing therapeutic field. Shapiro and Rich (both of whom hold doctorates in special education), offer both current information and strategies for action. They first define the problems, and varying definitions abound. At the outset, they note that "learning disability" is "an umbrella term that includes different subsets of problems. . . . It may mean difficulty with reading decoding, reading comprehension, written expression, mathematical calculations or reasoning, oral language, or a combination of these." They go on to discuss its possible causes (current research focuses on mapping the areas of the brain most likely to be involved, and investigating the role of genetics), describe recent theories of how the brain works, and then explain how learning disabilities are diagnosed. (Many adults still go undiagnosed until their children have been discovered to have a learning disability.) Specific disabilities, especially dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are discussed in detail along with associated psychosocial problems before Shapiro and Rich turn to instructional approaches, vocational services, research, and relevant legal issues. Illustrative case studies throughout keep the presentation from becoming too academic. A worthwhile primer, and a sound starting point for further research.
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