THE HIGH ROAD

Off we go into the wild blue yonder—not for space colonies, at least not yet—but to solve the energy crisis, create new jobs above and below, mine the moon, shuttle to low orbit way-stations between here and the asteroids, tend to solarpower satellites, and fulfill other dreams of power and glory. Ben Bova is both a science-fiction and a science writer, and he's also worked for aerospace companies. He can review America's and Russia's space programs with cogency and accuracy. What mars this generally articulate and easy-to-understand explanation of space how-to is the overenthusiastic, often belligerent voice. Bova would like to woo the environmentalists and liberals to the space cause, but he does this by calling them Luddites; and his kind of good guys are "Prometheans." Moreover, there is such an air of manifest destiny about his stance—space is there for us freeenterprise smart ones to exploit; so let's dump our radioactive waste, get the gold and silver and power out—that one's moral feelings are offended. Noting those qualms, it must also be noted that Bova is fun to read on the feasibility of burning hydrogen gas in our cars right now; on the potential of magnetohydrodynamic sources of energy (controlled nuclear fusion); on the promise—and problems—of Solar Power Satellites that would beam microwaves at huge earth-based antennas. He does not omit the possible hazards of microwaves, nor the danger of military takeovers of peacetime space stations. Indeed, probably the most telling argument in the book is that civilians ought to get into the act, exercising as much power and control over the uses of space as they can; if they don't, space will be totally lost to the military. That, at least, is an argument that will not be lost on environmentalists—who might otherwise be tempted to leave the book to enthusiasts altogether.

Pub Date: Sept. 16, 1981

ISBN: 0671458051

Page Count: 310

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin

Review Posted Online: March 20, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 1, 1981

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...

THINKING, FAST AND SLOW

A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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A declaration worth hearing out in a time of growing inequality—and indignity.

ECONOMIC DIGNITY

Noted number cruncher Sperling delivers an economist’s rejoinder to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Former director of the National Economic Council in the administrations of Presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, the author has long taken a view of the dismal science that takes economic justice fully into account. Alongside all the metrics and estimates and reckonings of GDP, inflation, and the supply curve, he holds the great goal of economic policy to be the advancement of human dignity, a concept intangible enough to chase the econometricians away. Growth, the sacred mantra of most economic policy, “should never be considered an appropriate ultimate end goal” for it, he counsels. Though 4% is the magic number for annual growth to be considered healthy, it is healthy only if everyone is getting the benefits and not just the ultrawealthy who are making away with the spoils today. Defining dignity, admits Sperling, can be a kind of “I know it when I see it” problem, but it does not exist where people are a paycheck away from homelessness; the fact, however, that people widely share a view of indignity suggests the “intuitive universality” of its opposite. That said, the author identifies three qualifications, one of them the “ability to meaningfully participate in the economy with respect, not domination and humiliation.” Though these latter terms are also essentially unquantifiable, Sperling holds that this respect—lack of abuse, in another phrasing—can be obtained through a tight labor market and monetary and fiscal policy that pushes for full employment. In other words, where management needs to come looking for workers, workers are likely to be better treated than when the opposite holds. In still other words, writes the author, dignity is in part a function of “ ‘take this job and shove it’ power,” which is a power worth fighting for.

A declaration worth hearing out in a time of growing inequality—and indignity.

Pub Date: May 5, 2020

ISBN: 978-1-9848-7987-5

Page Count: 384

Publisher: Penguin Press

Review Posted Online: Feb. 26, 2020

Kirkus Reviews Issue: March 15, 2020

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