A worthy, tightly organized, and intriguing program for rethinking thinking.


A “toolkit” focuses on understanding and improving the brain’s performance.

In his slim debut guide, Watts begins with the simple assertion that the human brain is “buggy.” He proceeds from that declaration to offer readers insights into how the brain works and how to fix its stubborn shortcomings. The author’s 10-year history in software development informs his use of terms like debugging. He combines this expertise with a psychological approach centered on introspection and cognitive behavioral therapy to create a method of reworking old thought patterns and rewiring dated habits. Key to this technique is the differentiation between what Watts calls the “inner” and the “outer” brain, the inner being the more instinctual, unthinking center of visceral reaction and the outer being the more rational and evaluative part. This reality—that humans feel first and think second—prompts the author to imagine a software-style “Input-Process-Output” model that can be modified in one of two ways: either Input-Habit-Output or Input-Mindful-Output. Watts furnishes many hypothetical situations (quite a few from his personal life) that his readers will find immediately recognizable and follows all of those scenarios with quick and incisive analyses. In all cases, some variation of CBT is his suggestion for resolving the problems he poses. In friendly, engaging prose, he urges his readers to talk things out with a friend (or a rubber ducky if no cohort is available at the moment), write things down, and even read some fiction to help with the brain’s processing techniques. Most of his procedural suggestions boil down to common sense (think about your own actions; express yourself; be a good confessor and a superb listener), but they’re no less valuable for that, particularly when delivered with the energy and optimism Watts employs throughout his book. Regardless of their stance on CBT, readers will find a great deal of useful advice here.

A worthy, tightly organized, and intriguing program for rethinking thinking.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2020

ISBN: 978-0-578-75503-8

Page Count: 94

Publisher: Self

Review Posted Online: Feb. 3, 2021

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If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.


The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power.

Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world’s greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: “Conceal Your Intentions,” “Always Say Less Than Necessary,” “Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy,” and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it’s used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict each other. We are told, for instance, to “be conspicuous at all cost,” then told to “behave like others.” More seriously, Greene never really defines “power,” and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn’t. To ask why this is so would be a far more useful project.

If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

Pub Date: Sept. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-670-88146-5

Page Count: 430

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 15, 1998

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...


A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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