A unified and hopeful collection that should interest attorneys, activists, and open-minded law enforcement professionals.




An urgent anthology suggesting progressive approaches to ending the era of overimprisonment.

“Mass incarceration is destroying hundreds of communities and millions of families across America,” writes editor Drucker (Global Public Health/New York Univ.; A Plague of Prisons: The Epidemiology of Mass Incarceration in America, 2011, etc.), who views this tangled situation as a matter of public health. That discipline, he writes, “has a well-developed model of prevention that breaks interventions into primary, secondary, and tertiary stages….I have drawn on these concepts and organized the book in three parts that mirror these three categories.” Essays in the first section thus focus on reducing the number of people entering prisons and jails, the “front door” approach. The contributors discuss the counterintuitive narratives of New York City and California. Previously focused on tough-on-crime approaches, their “unprecedented reduction in reliance on incarceration has been a bottom-up, advocacy-driven, community-focused strategy.” Other perspectives come from public defenders, who testify to the corrosive nature of the process by observing, “an arrest is never just an arrest,” and a judge who ponders how he “can and should act to minimize the blight of mass incarceration.” The discussions of secondary-level interventions focus on improving prison conditions, examining the complex issue of children of imprisoned parents, and looking at controversial reconsiderations of responses to violence. Finally, the tertiary discussion focuses on facilitating harm reduction as former prisoners re-enter their communities, in terms of reconciliation with survivors of violence, preventing recidivism and drug relapses, and even refashioning the economies of “prison towns.” The strengths of the anthology are the evidence-based clarity of each chapter’s discussion and their thoroughness in examining distinct aspects of mass incarceration. Still, as Drucker and some contributors acknowledge, their initiatives are unlikely to move forward beyond the local level during the Trump presidency and its call for “long mandatory sentences and a resumption of the failed war on drugs.”

A unified and hopeful collection that should interest attorneys, activists, and open-minded law enforcement professionals.

Pub Date: Feb. 6, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-62097-278-6

Page Count: 320

Publisher: The New Press

Review Posted Online: Jan. 8, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 1, 2018

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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