Though long, Kloppenberg’s account is not exhaustive, and there is plenty of room for interpretation and annotation. A book...

TOWARD DEMOCRACY

THE STRUGGLE FOR SELF-RULE IN EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN THOUGHT

An original discussion of how the idea of democracy took root and has been transformed in the West.

It’s a Greek thing, of course. However, writes Kloppenberg (History/Harvard Univ.; Reading Obama: Dreams, Hope, and the American Political Tradition, 2010, etc.), in the hands of Westerners—mostly Protestants, at least at first—the idea of democracy as a dangerous doctrine of the mob was reshaped into an ideal. As the author writes without apology, much of this transformation occurred in the former British colonies that became the United States, where, at least from a British nobleman’s point of view, mob rule did take hold. Kloppenberg locates some of the sources of this remaking of democracy in Enlightenment readings of the Bible and antiquity, and he considers its religious origins to be underappreciated in the historical literature. He further identifies three contested principles in debates about democracy: popular sovereignty, autonomy, and equality. As he observes, the ability of people to govern themselves without an entrenched class of overseers has long been a matter of controversy, though the argument has a chicken-and-egg quality to it. In any event, Thomas Jefferson dismissed it neatly by saying that taking sovereignty away was not the issue but rather improving the people’s capacity to make sound judgments. Surveying the subsequent political landscape, Kloppenberg allows that the debate has found plenty of room to continue to rage. Elsewhere, he writes of the idea that the people have not just the right, but also the duty to resist “tyrants who flout divine law,” as well as the idea that the source of authority truly lies in the consent of the governed and “the conscience of individual citizens.” A bonus for fans: Kloppenberg finds fresh things to say about both John Stuart Mill and Alexis de Tocqueville—no small feat.

Though long, Kloppenberg’s account is not exhaustive, and there is plenty of room for interpretation and annotation. A book to read, profitably, alongside Karl Popper’s The Open Society and Its Enemies.

Pub Date: June 2, 2016

ISBN: 978-0-19-505461-3

Page Count: 964

Publisher: Oxford Univ.

Review Posted Online: March 30, 2016

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 15, 2016

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A moving meditation on mortality by a gifted writer whose dual perspectives of physician and patient provide a singular...

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WHEN BREATH BECOMES AIR

A neurosurgeon with a passion for literature tragically finds his perfect subject after his diagnosis of terminal lung cancer.

Writing isn’t brain surgery, but it’s rare when someone adept at the latter is also so accomplished at the former. Searching for meaning and purpose in his life, Kalanithi pursued a doctorate in literature and had felt certain that he wouldn’t enter the field of medicine, in which his father and other members of his family excelled. “But I couldn’t let go of the question,” he writes, after realizing that his goals “didn’t quite fit in an English department.” “Where did biology, morality, literature and philosophy intersect?” So he decided to set aside his doctoral dissertation and belatedly prepare for medical school, which “would allow me a chance to find answers that are not in books, to find a different sort of sublime, to forge relationships with the suffering, and to keep following the question of what makes human life meaningful, even in the face of death and decay.” The author’s empathy undoubtedly made him an exceptional doctor, and the precision of his prose—as well as the moral purpose underscoring it—suggests that he could have written a good book on any subject he chose. Part of what makes this book so essential is the fact that it was written under a death sentence following the diagnosis that upended his life, just as he was preparing to end his residency and attract offers at the top of his profession. Kalanithi learned he might have 10 years to live or perhaps five. Should he return to neurosurgery (he could and did), or should he write (he also did)? Should he and his wife have a baby? They did, eight months before he died, which was less than two years after the original diagnosis. “The fact of death is unsettling,” he understates. “Yet there is no other way to live.”

A moving meditation on mortality by a gifted writer whose dual perspectives of physician and patient provide a singular clarity.

Pub Date: Jan. 19, 2016

ISBN: 978-0-8129-8840-6

Page Count: 248

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: Sept. 30, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 15, 2015

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Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.

GOOD ECONOMICS FOR HARD TIMES

“Quality of life means more than just consumption”: Two MIT economists urge that a smarter, more politically aware economics be brought to bear on social issues.

It’s no secret, write Banerjee and Duflo (co-authors: Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way To Fight Global Poverty, 2011), that “we seem to have fallen on hard times.” Immigration, trade, inequality, and taxation problems present themselves daily, and they seem to be intractable. Economics can be put to use in figuring out these big-issue questions. Data can be adduced, for example, to answer the question of whether immigration tends to suppress wages. The answer: “There is no evidence low-skilled migration to rich countries drives wage and employment down for the natives.” In fact, it opens up opportunities for those natives by freeing them to look for better work. The problem becomes thornier when it comes to the matter of free trade; as the authors observe, “left-behind people live in left-behind places,” which explains why regional poverty descended on Appalachia when so many manufacturing jobs left for China in the age of globalism, leaving behind not just left-behind people but also people ripe for exploitation by nationalist politicians. The authors add, interestingly, that the same thing occurred in parts of Germany, Spain, and Norway that fell victim to the “China shock.” In what they call a “slightly technical aside,” they build a case for addressing trade issues not with trade wars but with consumption taxes: “It makes no sense to ask agricultural workers to lose their jobs just so steelworkers can keep theirs, which is what tariffs accomplish.” Policymakers might want to consider such counsel, especially when it is coupled with the observation that free trade benefits workers in poor countries but punishes workers in rich ones.

Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.

Pub Date: Nov. 12, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-61039-950-0

Page Count: 432

Publisher: PublicAffairs

Review Posted Online: Aug. 29, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2019

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