A thorough, thoughtful look at cross-cultural understanding from an experienced expatriate author.

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I Am the Monkey

HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY MANAGE AND LIVE IN FOREIGN CULTURES

An exploration of cultural competency and the skills that make it possible to live and work in foreign countries.

In this business book, Wittwer (Talking through Pictures, 2016, etc.) shares advice for understanding and fitting into new cultures, particularly in the context of international business relationships. The title comes from the book’s central metaphor: a monkey struggling to understand the behavior of zoo visitors outside its cage. The book examines not just how cultures differ around the world, but why, offering psychological, sociological, and ethnographic explanations of a population’s dominant behaviors. It also provides resources for responding to these behaviors while adapting to life in a new country. Wittwer’s expertise on the subject is drawn not only from his years as an international business executive, but also from his experience as a Swiss citizen who grew up in the West African nation of Burkina Faso. The text is informative and knowledgeable, drawing on anthropological and ethnographic research without getting caught up in excessive jargon. It explores some examples of cross-cultural misunderstandings at length, such as one in which an English teacher gets upset because her Arab pupils share answers to a test, while others serve as springboards to more general discussion. Wittwer has an eye for details that will specifically capture the attention of American readers: “I ate my first peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwich at the age of 34 when on an expat assignment in America.” However, he also has a tendency to repeat examples, such as one regarding an African president’s favoritism toward his hometown, and linguists will take issue with his analysis of the quantity of Koyukon words for snow. But these minor shortcomings are outweighed by his competent, coherent explanations, which include resources for further reading.

A thorough, thoughtful look at cross-cultural understanding from an experienced expatriate author.

Pub Date: June 1, 2016

ISBN: 978-1-5089-3358-8

Page Count: 278

Publisher: CreateSpace

Review Posted Online: July 29, 2016

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...

THINKING, FAST AND SLOW

A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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A deftly argued case for a new kind of socialism that, while sure to inspire controversy, bears widespread discussion.

CAPITAL AND IDEOLOGY

A massive investigation of economic history in the service of proposing a political order to overcome inequality.

Readers who like their political manifestoes in manageable sizes, à la Common Sense or The Communist Manifesto, may be overwhelmed by the latest from famed French economist Piketty (Top Incomes in France in the Twentieth Century: Inequality and Redistribution, 1901-1998, 2014, etc.), but it’s a significant work. The author interrogates the principal forms of economic organization over time, from slavery to “non-European trifunctional societies,” Chinese-style communism, and “hypercapitalist” orders, in order to examine relative levels of inequality and its evolution. Each system is founded on an ideology, and “every ideology, no matter how extreme it may seem in its defense of inequality, expresses a certain idea of social justice.” In the present era, at least in the U.S., that idea of social justice would seem to be only that the big ones eat the little ones, the principal justification being that the wealthiest people became rich because they are “the most enterprising, deserving, and useful.” In fact, as Piketty demonstrates, there’s more to inequality than the mere “size of the income gap.” Contrary to hypercapitalist ideology and its defenders, the playing field is not level, the market is not self-regulating, and access is not evenly distributed. Against this, Piketty arrives at a proposed system that, among other things, would redistribute wealth across societies by heavy taxation, especially of inheritances, to create a “participatory socialism” in which power is widely shared and trade across nations is truly free. The word “socialism,” he allows, is a kind of Pandora’s box that can scare people off—and, he further acknowledges, “the Russian and Czech oligarchs who buy athletic teams and newspapers may not be the most savory characters, but the Soviet system was a nightmare and had to go.” Yet so, too, writes the author, is a capitalism that rewards so few at the expense of so many.

A deftly argued case for a new kind of socialism that, while sure to inspire controversy, bears widespread discussion.

Pub Date: March 10, 2020

ISBN: 978-0-674-98082-2

Page Count: 976

Publisher: Belknap/Harvard Univ.

Review Posted Online: Dec. 22, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 15, 2020

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