An astute diagnosis of democracy’s current ailments and an incisive argument for a novel cure.



Three professors of political science outline a new form of democratic participation as a tonic to civic disillusionment. 

According to Esterling (The Political Economy of Expertise, 2004), Lazer (co-author: Connecting Democracy, 2011) and Neblo (Deliberative Democracy Between Theory and Practice, 2015), American politics suffers from a crisis of confidence. In response to the increasing complexity of governance, the “partisan blood sport” of ideological polarization, and the dominance of special-interest groups, citizens no longer trust that their participation in the political process bears any fruit: “Contemporary democracy asks little more of citizens than their votes and money, and so it is no wonder that many citizens share a sense of dissatisfaction and disconnection from public life.” The three main responses to these “democratic deficits”—more direct voter participation, more trust in technocratic bureaucracy, and a call for energetic populist leadership—misunderstand the core problem, which is that the relationship between citizens and their representatives have becomes so deformed that people no longer trust that their political expressions matter. The authors argue for a means to revivify that relationship through “directly representative democracy,” the centerpiece of which is the establishment of online, deliberative town halls that permit public officials and their constituents to openly communicate. The authors meticulously articulate the five criteria that any institution would have to satisfy to properly qualify as directly representative—in short, any such mechanism would have to be broadly inclusive, promote an informed and rational exchange of ideas, be scalable to encompass a sizable constituency, and restore the legitimacy of deliberative participation. This work is a brief but impressively thoughtful analysis, both philosophically searching and empirically rigorous—13 members of Congress participated in this study. The authors are inventive but not idealistic—the point is to make relatively modest and manageable improvements in existing structures to produce simple payoffs. The crux of the study is a rational faith in the “latent capacity” of citizens to educate themselves when that effort is properly recognized and rewarded, essentially a trust in the possibility of self-governance itself. 

An astute diagnosis of democracy’s current ailments and an incisive argument for a novel cure.

Pub Date: Sept. 6, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-107-11726-6

Page Count: 180

Publisher: Cambridge Univ.

Review Posted Online: Feb. 7, 2019

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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A clear and candid contribution to an essential conversation.


Straight talk to blacks and whites about the realities of racism.

In her feisty debut book, Oluo, essayist, blogger, and editor at large at the Establishment magazine, writes from the perspective of a black, queer, middle-class, college-educated woman living in a “white supremacist country.” The daughter of a white single mother, brought up in largely white Seattle, she sees race as “one of the most defining forces” in her life. Throughout the book, Oluo responds to questions that she has often been asked, and others that she wishes were asked, about racism “in our workplace, our government, our homes, and ourselves.” “Is it really about race?” she is asked by whites who insist that class is a greater source of oppression. “Is police brutality really about race?” “What is cultural appropriation?” and “What is the model minority myth?” Her sharp, no-nonsense answers include talking points for both blacks and whites. She explains, for example, “when somebody asks you to ‘check your privilege’ they are asking you to pause and consider how the advantages you’ve had in life are contributing to your opinions and actions, and how the lack of disadvantages in certain areas is keeping you from fully understanding the struggles others are facing.” She unpacks the complicated term “intersectionality”: the idea that social justice must consider “a myriad of identities—our gender, class, race, sexuality, and so much more—that inform our experiences in life.” She asks whites to realize that when people of color talk about systemic racism, “they are opening up all of that pain and fear and anger to you” and are asking that they be heard. After devoting most of the book to talking, Oluo finishes with a chapter on action and its urgency. Action includes pressing for reform in schools, unions, and local governments; boycotting businesses that exploit people of color; contributing money to social justice organizations; and, most of all, voting for candidates who make “diversity, inclusion and racial justice a priority.”

A clear and candid contribution to an essential conversation.

Pub Date: Jan. 16, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-58005-677-9

Page Count: 256

Publisher: Seal Press

Review Posted Online: Oct. 9, 2017

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 1, 2017

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