An elegantly constructed and organized scientific exploration and self-help work.

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YOUR BEHAVIOR

UNDERSTANDING AND CHANGING THE THINGS YOU DO

A comprehensive study of human behavior in an eminently readable format.

Psychology researcher and debut author Pfau presents a clear and highly detailed, if occasionally dry, discussion of behavior that delves into the complex science behind it. He also provides a defined process that one may use to change entrenched routines. He logically intertwines the four parts of his book, and each nicely builds upon the ones that preceded it. In textbook style, Pfau offers overviews of each part and chapter along with further reading and notes at the end. He also includes a master list of “Highlights”—more than 100 sidebars with diagrams or explanations that further illuminate the main text. Part I, the shortest section, introduces the concept of behavior and explores how the body’s self-preservation instincts affect it. Part II considers how one’s personal behavior is derived from internal processes of, for example, the nervous system and endocrine system. Part III discusses the effect of environment on one’s actions. This section includes a particularly engaging discussion of how different people’s perceptions of the same situations can vary. A key point in this section is highly relevant to today’s news- and information-rich environment: the reality that “what we know about the world…is largely shaped by the media to which we are exposed.” The book’s fourth and final part is the most intriguing because it focuses on behavioral theories and models, analysis, and methods of effecting change. In it, Pfau introduces and explains perceptual control theory, which, he writes, “focuses on our control of what we sense and perceive, rather than on our actions.” He then demonstrates how to use PCT concepts for analytical purposes. The last chapter succinctly summarizes all of the book’s lessons and sets forth a lucid, step-by-step process for asserting control and altering the ways that one behaves. Excellent appendices provide supplemental forms and checklists.

An elegantly constructed and organized scientific exploration and self-help work.

Pub Date: March 1, 2017

ISBN: 978-1-55778-927-3

Page Count: 315

Publisher: Paragon House

Review Posted Online: Nov. 23, 2017

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 15, 2018

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If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

THE 48 LAWS OF POWER

The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power.

Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world’s greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: “Conceal Your Intentions,” “Always Say Less Than Necessary,” “Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy,” and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it’s used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict each other. We are told, for instance, to “be conspicuous at all cost,” then told to “behave like others.” More seriously, Greene never really defines “power,” and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn’t. To ask why this is so would be a far more useful project.

If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

Pub Date: Sept. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-670-88146-5

Page Count: 430

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 15, 1998

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...

THINKING, FAST AND SLOW

A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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