A lifetime of scholarship provides a cautionary perspective on the current state of politics.

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LOSING REALITY

ON CULTS, CULTISM, AND THE MINDSET OF POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS ZEALOTRY

The scholar, psychiatrist, and National Book Award–winning author draws on his previous work to put the America of Donald Trump into perspective.

Lifton (The Climate Swerve: Reflections on Mind, Hope, and Survival, 2017, etc.), who has decades of his own research from which to draw, shows how his thinking on cults and “ideological totalism” has changed. He previously made a sharp distinction between the communal isolationism of the former, which protected its own version of reality as hermetically sealed, and the mass movements of the latter, spurred by demagoguery. Now, he believes that “ideological totalism and cultlike behavior not only blend with each other but tend to be part of a single entity….That is, totalistic movements are cultlike and cults are totalistic.” From this fresh perspective, the author revisits and excerpts his work, originally published in 1961, on “Chinese Communist Thought Reform,” which showed the strong psychological pull of being part of something bigger than oneself amid the radical reimagining of a return to a purer state, one in which contaminants have been excised—“an apocalyptic cleansing of all the past—a psychological apocalypticism in which all prior products of the human mind had to give way to a new collective mindset that was pure, perfect, and eternal.” Examining the “psychology of genocide,” he connects the dots between such totalitarian thought reform and the Nazi idea of racial purification. Past scholarship provides the prologue to contemporary analysis as Lifton describes Donald Trump as “a special kind of cultist” who projects “an apocalyptic aura” amid “something close to a worldwide epidemic of fundamentalism.” The author insists that we must “bear witness to malignant normality and expose it” and nurture “our capacity for openness and truth-telling as alternatives to the closed world of cultism.”

A lifetime of scholarship provides a cautionary perspective on the current state of politics.

Pub Date: Oct. 15, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-62097-499-5

Page Count: 240

Publisher: The New Press

Review Posted Online: July 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Aug. 15, 2019

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If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

THE 48 LAWS OF POWER

The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power.

Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world’s greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: “Conceal Your Intentions,” “Always Say Less Than Necessary,” “Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy,” and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it’s used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict each other. We are told, for instance, to “be conspicuous at all cost,” then told to “behave like others.” More seriously, Greene never really defines “power,” and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn’t. To ask why this is so would be a far more useful project.

If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

Pub Date: Sept. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-670-88146-5

Page Count: 430

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 15, 1998

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...

THINKING, FAST AND SLOW

A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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