by Sebastian Edwards ‧ RELEASE DATE: May 23, 2023
A closely argued study of the merits and demerits of free market economics in action.
The history of the economic shock that accompanied the right-wing military coup in Chile in 1973.
In 1955, the U.S. State Department launched a project in which Chilean economists were trained in the free market fundamentalism of Milton Friedman. When Augusto Pinochet overthrew the government of Salvador Allende, “the first Marxist politician to be freely elected as a head of state in any country,” the “Chicago Boys,” as they were called, went to work undoing Allende’s socialist reforms and installing policies that included the privatization of social security, the use of school vouchers, and the abolition of thousands of regulations. As Edwards, a professor of economics and former chief economist for Latin America and the Caribbean at the World Bank, writes, the economists “would soon find out how different pontificating from the ivory tower was from actually implementing policies aimed at changing decades of entrenched policies.” Still, Chile eventually found its footing as a bastion of neoliberalism, and in the early 2000s, “Chile became, by a wide margin, the wealthiest nation in Latin America.” The nation was also marked by predatory capitalism and shocking inequality, a situation that was just fine by Friedman but was anathema to the working people of Chile—and was “a serious weakness that was mostly ignored by the architects of the model and that would come to haunt them.” Additionally, given that neoliberalism is globalist, Chile was long hampered in international trade by its status as a pariah nation thanks to the very military dictatorship that had brought the Chicago Boys to the fore. For all its successes, neoliberal Chile came to suffer from the failure of privatized social security. With the election of the leftist activist Gabriel Boric to the presidency in 2021, Chile is now abandoning many Chicago tenets in order to “move away from markets and competition.” Throughout, Edwards maintains a detailed yet accessible narrative.A closely argued study of the merits and demerits of free market economics in action.
Pub Date: May 23, 2023
Page Count: 368
Publisher: Princeton Univ.
Review Posted Online: Dec. 13, 2022
Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 15, 2023
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by Matthew Desmond ‧ RELEASE DATE: March 21, 2023
A clearly delineated guide to finally eradicate poverty in America.
A thoughtful program for eradicating poverty from the Pulitzer Prize–winning author of Evicted.
“America’s poverty is not for lack of resources,” writes Desmond. “We lack something else.” That something else is compassion, in part, but it’s also the lack of a social system that insists that everyone pull their weight—and that includes the corporations and wealthy individuals who, the IRS estimates, get away without paying upward of $1 trillion per year. Desmond, who grew up in modest circumstances and suffered poverty in young adulthood, points to the deleterious effects of being poor—among countless others, the precarity of health care and housing (with no meaningful controls on rent), lack of transportation, the constant threat of losing one’s job due to illness, and the need to care for dependent children. It does not help, Desmond adds, that so few working people are represented by unions or that Black Americans, even those who have followed the “three rules” (graduate from high school, get a full-time job, wait until marriage to have children), are far likelier to be poor than their White compatriots. Furthermore, so many full-time jobs are being recast as contracted, fire-at-will gigs, “not a break from the norm as much as an extension of it, a continuation of corporations finding new ways to limit their obligations to workers.” By Desmond’s reckoning, besides amending these conditions, it would not take a miracle to eliminate poverty: about $177 billion, which would help end hunger and homelessness and “make immense headway in driving down the many agonizing correlates of poverty, like violence, sickness, and despair.” These are matters requiring systemic reform, which will in turn require Americans to elect officials who will enact that reform. And all of us, the author urges, must become “poverty abolitionists…refusing to live as unwitting enemies of the poor.” Fortune 500 CEOs won’t like Desmond’s message for rewriting the social contract—which is precisely the point.A clearly delineated guide to finally eradicate poverty in America.
Pub Date: March 21, 2023
Page Count: 288
Review Posted Online: Nov. 30, 2022
Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 2023
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by Ta-Nehisi Coates ‧ RELEASE DATE: July 8, 2015
This moving, potent testament might have been titled “Black Lives Matter.” Or: “An American Tragedy.”
Awards & Accolades
Best Books Of 2015
New York Times Bestseller
National Book Award Winner
Pulitzer Prize Finalist
The powerful story of a father’s past and a son’s future.
Atlantic senior writer Coates (The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood, 2008) offers this eloquent memoir as a letter to his teenage son, bearing witness to his own experiences and conveying passionate hopes for his son’s life. “I am wounded,” he writes. “I am marked by old codes, which shielded me in one world and then chained me in the next.” Coates grew up in the tough neighborhood of West Baltimore, beaten into obedience by his father. “I was a capable boy, intelligent and well-liked,” he remembers, “but powerfully afraid.” His life changed dramatically at Howard University, where his father taught and from which several siblings graduated. Howard, he writes, “had always been one of the most critical gathering posts for black people.” He calls it The Mecca, and its faculty and his fellow students expanded his horizons, helping him to understand “that the black world was its own thing, more than a photo-negative of the people who believe they are white.” Coates refers repeatedly to whites’ insistence on their exclusive racial identity; he realizes now “that nothing so essentialist as race” divides people, but rather “the actual injury done by people intent on naming us, intent on believing that what they have named matters more than anything we could ever actually do.” After he married, the author’s world widened again in New York, and later in Paris, where he finally felt extricated from white America’s exploitative, consumerist dreams. He came to understand that “race” does not fully explain “the breach between the world and me,” yet race exerts a crucial force, and young blacks like his son are vulnerable and endangered by “majoritarian bandits.” Coates desperately wants his son to be able to live “apart from fear—even apart from me.”This moving, potent testament might have been titled “Black Lives Matter.” Or: “An American Tragedy.”
Pub Date: July 8, 2015
Page Count: 176
Publisher: Spiegel & Grau
Review Posted Online: May 5, 2015
Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 1, 2015
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