A thorough analysis for the general reader, breaking down a vast amount of erudition on a controversial subject.

OUT OF IT

A CULTURAL HISTORY OF INTOXICATION

From British journalist Walton, an insightful overview of humanity’s historical and cultural attachment to various intoxicants.

Since ancient times, human beings have sought altered states of consciousness, states the author, who offers pharmaceutical, social, and legal histories of our fondness for substances, including opium, alcohol, cocaine, caffeine, heroin, LSD, marijuana, Ecstasy, and others. Walton views the desire for intoxication as normal and implies that vehement 20th-century efforts to ban such behavior have only exacerbated problems of addiction and fostered drug-related crime. At the same time, he acknowledges that it is characteristic of animal groups to shun those who do not share or exhibit “normal” consciousness, which could explain our own harsher methods of enforcing prohibitions. Many reform efforts, Walton points out, are based on worst-case scenarios of prolonged addiction and have often been fueled by lurid first-person accounts, a literary genre that includes De Quincy’s Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821) and a 1904 volume provocatively titled Eight Years in Cocaine Hell. Some of the most interesting material here include Walton’s examination of the history of viniculture and the importance of intoxication in religious tradition—alcohol, after all, is still known as “spirits.” He’s equally fascinating when describing experiments conducted on tetras, monkeys, and other highly social creatures that seek to identify community attitudes toward drugged members. Our past is in many ways a history of intoxication and artificial stimulation, Walton notes, making the point, for example, that political thought and revolutionary rhetoric in 17th-century Europe were greatly energized by the introduction of coffee. (Indeed, caffeine fueled so much radical talk that several monarchs ordered coffeehouses closed.) This responsible, tightly written account persuades through accumulation of fact rather than heated polemics; it deserves a prominent place in the emerging discussion reshaping understanding and policies regarding intoxication and the use of drugs and alcohol.

A thorough analysis for the general reader, breaking down a vast amount of erudition on a controversial subject.

Pub Date: Oct. 1, 2002

ISBN: 0-609-61044-9

Page Count: 368

Publisher: Harmony

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Aug. 15, 2002

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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HOW TO BE AN ANTIRACIST

Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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A clear and candid contribution to an essential conversation.

SO YOU WANT TO TALK ABOUT RACE

Straight talk to blacks and whites about the realities of racism.

In her feisty debut book, Oluo, essayist, blogger, and editor at large at the Establishment magazine, writes from the perspective of a black, queer, middle-class, college-educated woman living in a “white supremacist country.” The daughter of a white single mother, brought up in largely white Seattle, she sees race as “one of the most defining forces” in her life. Throughout the book, Oluo responds to questions that she has often been asked, and others that she wishes were asked, about racism “in our workplace, our government, our homes, and ourselves.” “Is it really about race?” she is asked by whites who insist that class is a greater source of oppression. “Is police brutality really about race?” “What is cultural appropriation?” and “What is the model minority myth?” Her sharp, no-nonsense answers include talking points for both blacks and whites. She explains, for example, “when somebody asks you to ‘check your privilege’ they are asking you to pause and consider how the advantages you’ve had in life are contributing to your opinions and actions, and how the lack of disadvantages in certain areas is keeping you from fully understanding the struggles others are facing.” She unpacks the complicated term “intersectionality”: the idea that social justice must consider “a myriad of identities—our gender, class, race, sexuality, and so much more—that inform our experiences in life.” She asks whites to realize that when people of color talk about systemic racism, “they are opening up all of that pain and fear and anger to you” and are asking that they be heard. After devoting most of the book to talking, Oluo finishes with a chapter on action and its urgency. Action includes pressing for reform in schools, unions, and local governments; boycotting businesses that exploit people of color; contributing money to social justice organizations; and, most of all, voting for candidates who make “diversity, inclusion and racial justice a priority.”

A clear and candid contribution to an essential conversation.

Pub Date: Jan. 16, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-58005-677-9

Page Count: 256

Publisher: Seal Press

Review Posted Online: Oct. 9, 2017

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 1, 2017

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