A thorough analysis for the general reader, breaking down a vast amount of erudition on a controversial subject.

OUT OF IT

A CULTURAL HISTORY OF INTOXICATION

From British journalist Walton, an insightful overview of humanity’s historical and cultural attachment to various intoxicants.

Since ancient times, human beings have sought altered states of consciousness, states the author, who offers pharmaceutical, social, and legal histories of our fondness for substances, including opium, alcohol, cocaine, caffeine, heroin, LSD, marijuana, Ecstasy, and others. Walton views the desire for intoxication as normal and implies that vehement 20th-century efforts to ban such behavior have only exacerbated problems of addiction and fostered drug-related crime. At the same time, he acknowledges that it is characteristic of animal groups to shun those who do not share or exhibit “normal” consciousness, which could explain our own harsher methods of enforcing prohibitions. Many reform efforts, Walton points out, are based on worst-case scenarios of prolonged addiction and have often been fueled by lurid first-person accounts, a literary genre that includes De Quincy’s Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821) and a 1904 volume provocatively titled Eight Years in Cocaine Hell. Some of the most interesting material here include Walton’s examination of the history of viniculture and the importance of intoxication in religious tradition—alcohol, after all, is still known as “spirits.” He’s equally fascinating when describing experiments conducted on tetras, monkeys, and other highly social creatures that seek to identify community attitudes toward drugged members. Our past is in many ways a history of intoxication and artificial stimulation, Walton notes, making the point, for example, that political thought and revolutionary rhetoric in 17th-century Europe were greatly energized by the introduction of coffee. (Indeed, caffeine fueled so much radical talk that several monarchs ordered coffeehouses closed.) This responsible, tightly written account persuades through accumulation of fact rather than heated polemics; it deserves a prominent place in the emerging discussion reshaping understanding and policies regarding intoxication and the use of drugs and alcohol.

A thorough analysis for the general reader, breaking down a vast amount of erudition on a controversial subject.

Pub Date: Oct. 1, 2002

ISBN: 0-609-61044-9

Page Count: 368

Publisher: Harmony

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Aug. 15, 2002

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ALL THE PRESIDENT'S MEN

Bernstein and Woodward, the two Washington Post journalists who broke the Big Story, tell how they did it by old fashioned seat-of-the-pants reporting — in other words, lots of intuition and a thick stack of phone numbers. They've saved a few scoops for the occasion, the biggest being the name of their early inside source, the "sacrificial lamb" H**h Sl**n. But Washingtonians who talked will be most surprised by the admission that their rumored contacts in the FBI and elsewhere never existed; many who were telephoned for "confirmation" were revealing more than they realized. The real drama, and there's plenty of it, lies in the private-eye tactics employed by Bernstein and Woodward (they refer to themselves in the third person, strictly on a last name basis). The centerpiece of their own covert operation was an unnamed high government source they call Deep Throat, with whom Woodward arranged secret meetings by positioning the potted palm on his balcony and through codes scribbled in his morning newspaper. Woodward's wee hours meetings with Deep Throat in an underground parking garage are sheer cinema: we can just see Robert Redford (it has to be Robert Redford) watching warily for muggers and stubbing out endless cigarettes while Deep Throat spills the inside dope about the plumbers. Then too, they amass enough seamy detail to fascinate even the most avid Watergate wallower — what a drunken and abusive Mitchell threatened to do to Post publisher Katherine Graham's tit, and more on the Segretti connection — including the activities of a USC campus political group known as the Ratfuckers whose former members served as a recruiting pool for the Nixon White House. As the scandal goes public and out of their hands Bernstein and Woodward seem as stunned as the rest of us at where their search for the "head ratfucker" has led. You have to agree with what their City Editor Barry Sussman realized way back in the beginning — "We've never had a story like this. Just never."

Pub Date: June 18, 1974

ISBN: 0671894412

Page Count: 372

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

Review Posted Online: Oct. 10, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: June 1, 1974

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HOW TO BE AN ANTIRACIST

Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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