In this incisive and illuminating study, the author shows how she appreciates the power of art, the power of the internet,...




Bridging scholarly research and street activism, this analysis shows how memes are so much more than an internet phenomenon.

As an artist, journalist, and technologist (whose “home is wherever the Wi-Fi is”), Mina draws on a wide range of experience, from China to America, in her attempts to show the possibilities and challenges of galvanizing political activism through social media. What is a meme? In its simplest definition, it is “a unit of culture,” a term coined by scientist/author Richard Dawkins in 1976, well before the development of the internet. Originally popularized within the academic world, the notion of memes went viral as internet memes did, whether visual sloganeering, cat videos, or GIFs. They spread quickly and internationally, often defying the understanding of censors, as the author shows in her reportage of Chinese social movements, and adapting to messages well beyond their original intent. “Culture shifts, culture changes, culture is informed by much deeper processes than the internet, but the internet also informs culture,” writes Mina. “Memes come from deep wellsprings in society, and as more of society comes online, more memes of contention and disagreement appear.” Memes shape and shift the popular narrative, as hashtags amplify the power of “Black Lives Matter,” or “Deplorables,” or the crusade for gay marriage, and so often launch countermovements in their wakes. Though the author recognizes that such online activism is often derided as “slacktivism,” she suggests that online activism and physical activism have a synergistic relationship, that “object memes” such as the “pussy hats” in the 2017 Women’s March show a collective power and purpose. Mina is also insightful on those funny cat videos, which showed cat lovers (isolated in a world of dog parks and dog love) that there is a whole community of them on the internet.

In this incisive and illuminating study, the author shows how she appreciates the power of art, the power of the internet, and the intersection of the two.

Pub Date: Jan. 8, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-8070-5658-5

Page Count: 240

Publisher: Beacon

Review Posted Online: Sept. 12, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 1, 2018

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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