THE FROZEN REPUBLIC

HOW THE CONSTITUTION IS PARALYZING DEMOCRACY

With breathtaking oversimplification, Lazare, New York editor of In These Times, reduces America's problems to the inefficiencies wrought by its Constitution. Tracing the Constitution from its creation by a group of elitist ``Country gentlemen,'' Lazare argues that it was anything but revolutionary. Indeed, he contends, the Constitution epitomized an antique, deeply conservative Whig tendency that he calls the ``Country'' ideology, which favored a balanced government of limited and narrowly defined powers, commitment to traditional English liberties, decentralization, and rural self-sufficiency. This thinking, discredited by 1787 in rapidly industrializing Britain itself, remained in full flower in post-revolutionary America, Lazare asserts. Plainly, he thinks the creaky constitutional machinery and its checks and balances, designed to protect popular freedom against concentrations of arbitrary power, was excessively cumbersome and pernicious from its inception, and he points out that it has nearly broken down or failed to respond in several national crises, most spectacularly the Civil War. Lazare seems to think our Constitution has never worked well, and he attributes every modern national problem to the obstacles it poses, from judicial review to equal state suffrage in the Senate. Although he denounces the Constitution as an ``antidemocratic'' document, his principal objection seems to be that it produces inefficient, chaotic government. He proposes transforming the House of Representatives into a sort of British Parliament and making it supreme over the Senate, the executive, and the Supreme Court, thereby eliminating the checks and balances he so detests. But instead of making a good case for reform, Lazare takes us on an iffy historical survey, overdoes his argument for constitutional inefficiency, and ends with some pedestrian proposals. A British backbencher would be amused by the suggestion that parliamentary government is efficient and democratic, as would an American by the author's asserting the moral authority of the House of Representatives. (Author tour)

Pub Date: Jan. 15, 1996

ISBN: 0-15-100085-9

Page Count: 448

Publisher: Harcourt

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 15, 1995

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A moving meditation on mortality by a gifted writer whose dual perspectives of physician and patient provide a singular...

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WHEN BREATH BECOMES AIR

A neurosurgeon with a passion for literature tragically finds his perfect subject after his diagnosis of terminal lung cancer.

Writing isn’t brain surgery, but it’s rare when someone adept at the latter is also so accomplished at the former. Searching for meaning and purpose in his life, Kalanithi pursued a doctorate in literature and had felt certain that he wouldn’t enter the field of medicine, in which his father and other members of his family excelled. “But I couldn’t let go of the question,” he writes, after realizing that his goals “didn’t quite fit in an English department.” “Where did biology, morality, literature and philosophy intersect?” So he decided to set aside his doctoral dissertation and belatedly prepare for medical school, which “would allow me a chance to find answers that are not in books, to find a different sort of sublime, to forge relationships with the suffering, and to keep following the question of what makes human life meaningful, even in the face of death and decay.” The author’s empathy undoubtedly made him an exceptional doctor, and the precision of his prose—as well as the moral purpose underscoring it—suggests that he could have written a good book on any subject he chose. Part of what makes this book so essential is the fact that it was written under a death sentence following the diagnosis that upended his life, just as he was preparing to end his residency and attract offers at the top of his profession. Kalanithi learned he might have 10 years to live or perhaps five. Should he return to neurosurgery (he could and did), or should he write (he also did)? Should he and his wife have a baby? They did, eight months before he died, which was less than two years after the original diagnosis. “The fact of death is unsettling,” he understates. “Yet there is no other way to live.”

A moving meditation on mortality by a gifted writer whose dual perspectives of physician and patient provide a singular clarity.

Pub Date: Jan. 19, 2016

ISBN: 978-0-8129-8840-6

Page Count: 248

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: Sept. 30, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 15, 2015

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This moving, potent testament might have been titled “Black Lives Matter.” Or: “An American Tragedy.”

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BETWEEN THE WORLD AND ME

NOTES ON THE FIRST 150 YEARS IN AMERICA

The powerful story of a father’s past and a son’s future.

Atlantic senior writer Coates (The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood, 2008) offers this eloquent memoir as a letter to his teenage son, bearing witness to his own experiences and conveying passionate hopes for his son’s life. “I am wounded,” he writes. “I am marked by old codes, which shielded me in one world and then chained me in the next.” Coates grew up in the tough neighborhood of West Baltimore, beaten into obedience by his father. “I was a capable boy, intelligent and well-liked,” he remembers, “but powerfully afraid.” His life changed dramatically at Howard University, where his father taught and from which several siblings graduated. Howard, he writes, “had always been one of the most critical gathering posts for black people.” He calls it The Mecca, and its faculty and his fellow students expanded his horizons, helping him to understand “that the black world was its own thing, more than a photo-negative of the people who believe they are white.” Coates refers repeatedly to whites’ insistence on their exclusive racial identity; he realizes now “that nothing so essentialist as race” divides people, but rather “the actual injury done by people intent on naming us, intent on believing that what they have named matters more than anything we could ever actually do.” After he married, the author’s world widened again in New York, and later in Paris, where he finally felt extricated from white America’s exploitative, consumerist dreams. He came to understand that “race” does not fully explain “the breach between the world and me,” yet race exerts a crucial force, and young blacks like his son are vulnerable and endangered by “majoritarian bandits.” Coates desperately wants his son to be able to live “apart from fear—even apart from me.”

This moving, potent testament might have been titled “Black Lives Matter.” Or: “An American Tragedy.”

Pub Date: July 8, 2015

ISBN: 978-0-8129-9354-7

Page Count: 176

Publisher: Spiegel & Grau

Review Posted Online: May 6, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 1, 2015

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