A fine demonstration of science made accessible. (4 line drawings)

THE X IN SEX

HOW THE X CHROMOSOME CONTROLS OUR LIVES

The author of Making Babies (2001) takes a lively, witty tour of the X chromosome, creator of “a delicious asymmetry between men and women.”

Bainbridge (Comparative Anatomy and Physiology/Royal Veterinary College, London) begins by introducing an embryo that has not yet become either a boy or a girl baby and demonstrating how, for humans, the specialized X and Y sex chromosomes come into play. The default sex of an embryo is female; the presence of a Y chromosome is necessary to turn it into a male. While at first Y might seem the more powerful of the sex chromosomes, it is nearly empty of genes and almost incapable of doing anything other than control sex. Its counterpart, X, however, has profound effects on our lives and well-being. Bainbridge poses two questions: How do males cope with having just one X chromosome? How do females cope with having two? In a chapter on sex-linked diseases bearing the inspired title “The Duke of Kent’s Testicles,” he relates how hemophilia, a blood-clotting disorder transmitted by a damaged X chromosome, spread through certain royal families of Europe. Whereas girls inheriting this damaged X are protected by their spare, undamaged X chromosome, boys, having but a single X, become the victims of a life-threatening disease. Female bodies, on the other hand, says Bainbridge, lead a kind of double life owing to the X chromosome. Except for the germ cells, which later give rise to eggs, every cell in the female embryo switches off one of its X chromosomes, apparently at random. This makes every female body a complex mosaic: half the cells have an X chromosome from the mother, half from the father. Within this entertaining and informative, if slightly too brief account, the author intersperses two essays on the biology of the X chromosome; an epilogue considers some of the ramifications of sex selection.

A fine demonstration of science made accessible. (4 line drawings)

Pub Date: March 1, 2003

ISBN: 0-674-01028-0

Page Count: 224

Publisher: Harvard Univ.

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Dec. 1, 2002

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Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science...

A SHORT HISTORY OF NEARLY EVERYTHING

Bryson (I'm a Stranger Here Myself, 1999, etc.), a man who knows how to track down an explanation and make it confess, asks the hard questions of science—e.g., how did things get to be the way they are?—and, when possible, provides answers.

As he once went about making English intelligible, Bryson now attempts the same with the great moments of science, both the ideas themselves and their genesis, to resounding success. Piqued by his own ignorance on these matters, he’s egged on even more so by the people who’ve figured out—or think they’ve figured out—such things as what is in the center of the Earth. So he goes exploring, in the library and in company with scientists at work today, to get a grip on a range of topics from subatomic particles to cosmology. The aim is to deliver reports on these subjects in terms anyone can understand, and for the most part, it works. The most difficult is the nonintuitive material—time as part of space, say, or proteins inventing themselves spontaneously, without direction—and the quantum leaps unusual minds have made: as J.B.S. Haldane once put it, “The universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we can suppose.” Mostly, though, Bryson renders clear the evolution of continental drift, atomic structure, singularity, the extinction of the dinosaur, and a mighty host of other subjects in self-contained chapters that can be taken at a bite, rather than read wholesale. He delivers the human-interest angle on the scientists, and he keeps the reader laughing and willing to forge ahead, even over their heads: the human body, for instance, harboring enough energy “to explode with the force of thirty very large hydrogen bombs, assuming you knew how to liberate it and really wished to make a point.”

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective.

Pub Date: May 6, 2003

ISBN: 0-7679-0817-1

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Broadway

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2003

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A tiny book, not much bigger than a pamphlet, with huge potential impact.

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NO ONE IS TOO SMALL TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE

A collection of articulate, forceful speeches made from September 2018 to September 2019 by the Swedish climate activist who was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize.

Speaking in such venues as the European and British Parliaments, the French National Assembly, the Austrian World Summit, and the U.N. General Assembly, Thunberg has always been refreshingly—and necessarily—blunt in her demands for action from world leaders who refuse to address climate change. With clarity and unbridled passion, she presents her message that climate change is an emergency that must be addressed immediately, and she fills her speeches with punchy sound bites delivered in her characteristic pull-no-punches style: “I don’t want you to be hopeful. I want you to panic. I want you to feel the fear I feel every day. And then I want you to act.” In speech after speech, to persuade her listeners, she cites uncomfortable, even alarming statistics about global temperature rise and carbon dioxide emissions. Although this inevitably makes the text rather repetitive, the repetition itself has an impact, driving home her point so that no one can fail to understand its importance. Thunberg varies her style for different audiences. Sometimes it is the rousing “our house is on fire” approach; other times she speaks more quietly about herself and her hopes and her dreams. When addressing the U.S. Congress, she knowingly calls to mind the words and deeds of Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy. The last speech in the book ends on a note that is both challenging and upbeat: “We are the change and change is coming.” The edition published in Britain earlier this year contained 11 speeches; this updated edition has 16, all worth reading.

A tiny book, not much bigger than a pamphlet, with huge potential impact.

Pub Date: Nov. 26, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-14-313356-8

Page Count: 112

Publisher: Penguin

Review Posted Online: Nov. 3, 2019

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