Solid and scholarly, surprising and sobering.

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CHRISTIANITY

A GLOBAL HISTORY

Award-winning historian Chidester (Comparative Religion/Cape Town Univ.) offers a comprehensive history of Christianity—from Bethlehem to the First Church of Cyberspace (a worship Web site).

The author aims to “provide engaging and challenging occasions for thinking about Christianity”—and, for the most part, he succeeds impressively. He begins in Roman-ruled Judea, just before the birth of Jesus, noting that “eating and drinking in the presence of a divine being” were significant activities in the Roman religion and were soon integrated by Christians into their celebration of the Eucharist. Chidester retells the advent stories (reminding us that the earliest gospels were not composed until about 70 a.d.), follows the exploits of the apostle Paul, chronicles the establishment of the early church (which was not a building but “the act of gathering together for a ritual”), and describes the original rite of baptism (which required the converts to remove all their clothing). It was Constantine (ca. 273–337), the first Christian emperor of Rome, who was greatly responsible for the rapid spread of the religion. In subsequent chapters (as thematic as they are chronological), Chidester examines the evolving Christian conceptions of heaven and hell, the church’s emerging “military mission” in the middle ages, the significance of relics and icons, the scholarly debates that divided the church, and the pursuit of heretics and witches. After a thoughtful discussion of Martin Luther and the Reformation, Chidester globe-trots a bit, showing how Christianity reached its farther shores, how it changed people and was in turn changed itself. He gives an unblinking account of the effect of the Holocaust on both Christians and Jews, noting that it “challenged the notion that God could be both all-good and all-powerful.” Chidester strives throughout to maintain a disinterested tone and only occasionally emerges from it—e.g., he gently points out a moment of hypocrisy in the Falwell ministry.

Solid and scholarly, surprising and sobering.

Pub Date: Dec. 1, 2000

ISBN: 0-06-251708-2

Page Count: 608

Publisher: N/A

Review Posted Online: June 24, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2000

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If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

THE 48 LAWS OF POWER

The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power.

Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world’s greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: “Conceal Your Intentions,” “Always Say Less Than Necessary,” “Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy,” and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it’s used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict each other. We are told, for instance, to “be conspicuous at all cost,” then told to “behave like others.” More seriously, Greene never really defines “power,” and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn’t. To ask why this is so would be a far more useful project.

If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

Pub Date: Sept. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-670-88146-5

Page Count: 430

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 15, 1998

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The author’s sincere sermon—at times analytical, at times hortatory—remains a hopeful one.

THE ROAD TO CHARACTER

New York Times columnist Brooks (The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character and Achievement, 2011, etc.) returns with another volume that walks the thin line between self-help and cultural criticism.

Sandwiched between his introduction and conclusion are eight chapters that profile exemplars (Samuel Johnson and Michel de Montaigne are textual roommates) whose lives can, in Brooks’ view, show us the light. Given the author’s conservative bent in his column, readers may be surprised to discover that his cast includes some notable leftists, including Frances Perkins, Dorothy Day, and A. Philip Randolph. (Also included are Gens. Eisenhower and Marshall, Augustine, and George Eliot.) Throughout the book, Brooks’ pattern is fairly consistent: he sketches each individual’s life, highlighting struggles won and weaknesses overcome (or not), and extracts lessons for the rest of us. In general, he celebrates hard work, humility, self-effacement, and devotion to a true vocation. Early in his text, he adapts the “Adam I and Adam II” construction from the work of Rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik, Adam I being the more external, career-driven human, Adam II the one who “wants to have a serene inner character.” At times, this veers near the Devil Bugs Bunny and Angel Bugs that sit on the cartoon character’s shoulders at critical moments. Brooks liberally seasons the narrative with many allusions to history, philosophy, and literature. Viktor Frankl, Edgar Allan Poe, Paul Tillich, William and Henry James, Matthew Arnold, Virginia Woolf—these are but a few who pop up. Although Brooks goes after the selfie generation, he does so in a fairly nuanced way, noting that it was really the World War II Greatest Generation who started the ball rolling. He is careful to emphasize that no one—even those he profiles—is anywhere near flawless.

The author’s sincere sermon—at times analytical, at times hortatory—remains a hopeful one.

Pub Date: April 21, 2015

ISBN: 978-0-8129-9325-7

Page Count: 320

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: Feb. 16, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: March 1, 2015

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