An up-to-the-minute, entertaining revelation for armchair explorers of deep space.

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EXPLODING STARS AND INVISIBLE PLANETS

THE SCIENCE OF WHAT'S OUT THERE

British astronomer Watson (Why Is Uranus Upside Down? And Other Questions About the Universe, 2007, etc.) takes readers on a genial tour of the known—and imagined—universe.

“A typical place in the Universe is empty, cold and dark. And nothing in our experience can quantify just how empty, cold and dark it is.” So, with a nicely dramatic touch, writes the author, a pioneer in optics, long resident as a researcher in Australia, with an asteroid named in his honor. He has been on the astronomical scene for decades and is thus well positioned to track the development of theories on such matters as the nature of dark matter and, closer to home, the formation of the Earth’s moon. On the latter, he discards older notions that the moon was formed by accreted space debris and instead examines the “most popular contemporary theory,” namely that some large body, such as the “Mars-sized collider” called Theia, ran into Earth early in the planet’s history and threw a moon-sized section into orbit around the planet. The theory is not without its problems, but Watson is on the spot with research less than a year old that indicates that the moon is made mostly of “terrestrial magma, rather than rocky debris from Theia.” The evolution-of-ideas theme carries over to the famed Big Bang theory, which has been reverberating in one iteration or another for a century but has recently been complicated by the notion of “dark energy” and its role in the speed with which the universe expanded during those billions of explosive years. “The acceleration kicked in,” writes Watson, “only when galaxies were far enough apart for dark energy to begin to overcome gravity.” The author writes accessibly, and though some of the discussions may be a touch dense for readers without a background in astronomy, he doesn’t shy away from telling tales out of school, as when he reveals that one supposed signal from across the universe turned out to be a burst of radiation from a microwave oven in the lunchroom.

An up-to-the-minute, entertaining revelation for armchair explorers of deep space.

Pub Date: Jan. 14, 2020

ISBN: 978-0-231-19540-9

Page Count: 256

Publisher: Columbia Univ.

Review Posted Online: Oct. 23, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 15, 2019

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Not only the definitive life, but a tour de force by a master.

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EDISON

One of history’s most prolific inventors receives his due from one of the world’s greatest biographers.

Pulitzer and National Book Award winner Morris (This Living Hand and Other Essays, 2012, etc.), who died this year, agrees that Thomas Edison (1847-1931) almost certainly said, “genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration,” and few readers of this outstanding biography will doubt that he was the quintessential workaholic. Raised in a middle-class Michigan family, Edison displayed an obsessive entrepreneurial spirit from childhood. As an adolescent, he ran a thriving business selling food and newspapers on a local railroad. Learning Morse code, he spent the Civil War as a telegrapher, impressing colleagues with his speed and superiors with his ability to improve the equipment. In 1870, he opened his own shop to produce inventions to order. By 1876, he had money to build a large laboratory in New Jersey, possibly the world’s first industrial research facility. Never a loner, Edison hired talented people to assist him. The dazzling results included the first commercially successful light bulb for which, Morris reminds readers, he invented the entire system: dynamo, wires, transformers, connections, and switches. Critics proclaim that Edison’s innovations (motion pictures, fluoroscope, rechargeable batteries, mimeograph, etc.) were merely improvements on others’ work, but this is mostly a matter of sour grapes. Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone was a clunky, short-range device until it added Edison’s carbon microphone. And his phonograph flabbergasted everyone. Humans had been making images long before Daguerre, but no one had ever reproduced sound. Morris rivetingly describes the personalities, business details, and practical uses of Edison’s inventions as well as the massive technical details of years of research and trial and error for both his triumphs and his failures. For no obvious reason, the author writes in reverse chronological order, beginning in 1920, with each of the seven following chapters backtracking a decade. It may not satisfy all readers, but it works.

Not only the definitive life, but a tour de force by a master.

Pub Date: Oct. 22, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-8129-9311-0

Page Count: 800

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: July 15, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Aug. 1, 2019

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Jahren transcends both memoir and science writing in this literary fusion of both genres.

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LAB GIRL

Award-winning scientist Jahren (Geology and Geophysics/Univ. of Hawaii) delivers a personal memoir and a paean to the natural world.

The author’s father was a physics and earth science teacher who encouraged her play in the laboratory, and her mother was a student of English literature who nurtured her love of reading. Both of these early influences engrossingly combine in this adroit story of a dedication to science. Jahren’s journey from struggling student to struggling scientist has the narrative tension of a novel and characters she imbues with real depth. The heroes in this tale are the plants that the author studies, and throughout, she employs her facility with words to engage her readers. We learn much along the way—e.g., how the willow tree clones itself, the courage of a seed’s first root, the symbiotic relationship between trees and fungi, and the airborne signals used by trees in their ongoing war against insects. Trees are of key interest to Jahren, and at times she waxes poetic: “Each beginning is the end of a waiting. We are each given exactly one chance to be. Each of us is both impossible and inevitable. Every replete tree was first a seed that waited.” The author draws many parallels between her subjects and herself. This is her story, after all, and we are engaged beyond expectation as she relates her struggle in building and running laboratory after laboratory at the universities that have employed her. Present throughout is her lab partner, a disaffected genius named Bill, whom she recruited when she was a graduate student at Berkeley and with whom she’s worked ever since. The author’s tenacity, hope, and gratitude are all evident as she and Bill chase the sweetness of discovery in the face of the harsh economic realities of the research scientist.

Jahren transcends both memoir and science writing in this literary fusion of both genres.

Pub Date: April 5, 2016

ISBN: 978-1-101-87493-6

Page Count: 336

Publisher: Knopf

Review Posted Online: Jan. 5, 2016

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 15, 2016

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