A thoughtful, uncluttered treatise considering Europe’s intractable patterns of unemployment, immigration and racism.

FLASHPOINTS

THE EMERGING CRISIS IN EUROPE

This nonacademic but erudite view of European history shows that the 20th century’s trauma of war and violence is not quite behind us.

Stratfor founder and chairman Friedman (The Next Decade: Where We've Been…and Where We're Going, 2011, etc.) examines the history of Europe’s geopolitical formation since the Ottomans seized Constantinople in 1453 for patterns that might explain the devastation of the two world wars and the unquiet peace since. On the cusp of World War I, Europe enjoyed the status of a “magical place,” the pinnacle of civilization in terms of science, politics and culture, but it was soon to be eclipsed by three decades of unimaginable bloodshed. The German sense of victimization and insecurity prompted this fabled country of “philosophers and cathedrals” to fill the space left by the collapsed institutions of the Weimar Republic with “blood, race and myth.” By the end of the misery of World War II, Europe was depleted and could not even feed itself without the aid of the United States. Moreover, it was via U.S. management that Europe regained its “pride,” as well as economy, from the Marshall Plan, which was supposed to create an irresistible economic integration that made future wars impossible. There was great optimism, even prosperity, within Europe until 2008, when, according to the author, two events changed everything: Russia went to war with Georgia and the financial system collapsed. Russia was relevant again, nationalism awoke, and some poorer nations (e.g., Spain, Greece) struggled mightily while Germany, reunited and wealthy, became the “arbiter” of economic crisis. What Friedman calls the “borderlands” again erupted in war and displacement—i.e., the “flashpoints” of the Balkans and Caucasus that continue to demonstrate that the “passions that had defined Europe prior to 1945 were alive and well.”

A thoughtful, uncluttered treatise considering Europe’s intractable patterns of unemployment, immigration and racism.

Pub Date: Feb. 1, 2015

ISBN: 978-0-385-53633-2

Page Count: 288

Publisher: Doubleday

Review Posted Online: Nov. 15, 2014

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Dec. 1, 2014

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A Churchill-ian view of native history—Ward, that is, not Winston—its facts filtered through a dense screen of ideology.

AN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES' HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES

Custer died for your sins. And so, this book would seem to suggest, did every other native victim of colonialism.

Inducing guilt in non-native readers would seem to be the guiding idea behind Dunbar-Ortiz’s (Emerita, Ethnic Studies/California State Univ., Hayward; Blood on the Border: A Memoir of the Contra War, 2005, etc.) survey, which is hardly a new strategy. Indeed, the author says little that hasn’t been said before, but she packs a trove of ideological assumptions into nearly every page. For one thing, while “Indian” isn’t bad, since “[i]ndigenous individuals and peoples in North America on the whole do not consider ‘Indian’ a slur,” “American” is due to the fact that it’s “blatantly imperialistic.” Just so, indigenous peoples were overwhelmed by a “colonialist settler-state” (the very language broadly applied to Israelis vis-à-vis the Palestinians today) and then “displaced to fragmented reservations and economically decimated”—after, that is, having been forced to live in “concentration camps.” Were he around today, Vine Deloria Jr., the always-indignant champion of bias-puncturing in defense of native history, would disavow such tidily packaged, ready-made, reflexive language. As it is, the readers who are likely to come to this book—undergraduates, mostly, in survey courses—probably won’t question Dunbar-Ortiz’s inaccurate assertion that the military phrase “in country” derives from the military phrase “Indian country” or her insistence that all Spanish people in the New World were “gold-obsessed.” Furthermore, most readers won’t likely know that some Ancestral Pueblo (for whom Dunbar-Ortiz uses the long-abandoned term “Anasazi”) sites show evidence of cannibalism and torture, which in turn points to the inconvenient fact that North America wasn’t entirely an Eden before the arrival of Europe.

A Churchill-ian view of native history—Ward, that is, not Winston—its facts filtered through a dense screen of ideology.

Pub Date: Sept. 16, 2014

ISBN: 978-0-8070-0040-3

Page Count: 296

Publisher: Beacon Press

Review Posted Online: Aug. 18, 2014

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2014

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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HOW TO BE AN ANTIRACIST

Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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