MAXWELL'S DEMON

WHY WARMTH DISPERSES AND TIME PASSES

Von Baeyer (Physics/Coll. of William and Mary) offers assorted views of the —demon— and how he’s been slain over time to preserve the sacred second law of thermodynamics. The second law asserts that the universe is moving toward disorder and an increase in entropy. Given enough time, the universe will achieve a state of thermal equilibrium that has been poetically described as heat death. Practically speaking, the second law says that your cup of coffee always cools, that you can’t go backward in time, and that there is no free lunch as far as energy is concerned. That’s where Maxwell’s demon comes in. The eminent James Clerk Maxwell devised a thought experiment in which a tiny (and clever) demon sat at a trap door between two chambers, each filled with gas at different temperatures. Within each chamber, the molecules moved at various speeds in random directions. Suppose the microscopic demon selected the fastest molecules from the cooler chamber and opened the door to admit them to the warmer chamber, never allowing molecules from the hotter chamber to gain access to the cooler? The hotter chamber gets even hotter, with little or no energy expended—a violation of the second law! But, it turns out, this and other variants on the ways a demon could sort molecules didn—t allow for Brownian motion, in which a “large” object (the trap door) bombarded by molecules starts jiggling and destroying the purposeful activities of the demon. To properly appreciate the cogency of that argument, von Baeyer’s reader is treated to a detailed survey of 19th- and 20th-century physics: The conservation of energy, the concept of atoms, probability theory, and much more. To his credit, von Baeyer, a National Magazine Award winner, is ever a graceful and witty writer, at pains to clarify concepts. But this is challenging stuff. Readers are advised to follow Feynman’s principle: Read until you don’t understand, then go back and reread.

Pub Date: July 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-679-43342-2

Page Count: 256

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: June 1, 1998

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A quirky wonder of a book.

WHY FISH DON'T EXIST

A STORY OF LOSS, LOVE, AND THE HIDDEN ORDER OF LIFE

A Peabody Award–winning NPR science reporter chronicles the life of a turn-of-the-century scientist and how her quest led to significant revelations about the meaning of order, chaos, and her own existence.

Miller began doing research on David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) to understand how he had managed to carry on after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed his work. A taxonomist who is credited with discovering “a full fifth of fish known to man in his day,” Jordan had amassed an unparalleled collection of ichthyological specimens. Gathering up all the fish he could save, Jordan sewed the nameplates that had been on the destroyed jars directly onto the fish. His perseverance intrigued the author, who also discusses the struggles she underwent after her affair with a woman ended a heterosexual relationship. Born into an upstate New York farm family, Jordan attended Cornell and then became an itinerant scholar and field researcher until he landed at Indiana University, where his first ichthyological collection was destroyed by lightning. In between this catastrophe and others involving family members’ deaths, he reconstructed his collection. Later, he was appointed as the founding president of Stanford, where he evolved into a Machiavellian figure who trampled on colleagues and sang the praises of eugenics. Miller concludes that Jordan displayed the characteristics of someone who relied on “positive illusions” to rebound from disaster and that his stand on eugenics came from a belief in “a divine hierarchy from bacteria to humans that point[ed]…toward better.” Considering recent research that negates biological hierarchies, the author then suggests that Jordan’s beloved taxonomic category—fish—does not exist. Part biography, part science report, and part meditation on how the chaos that caused Miller’s existential misery could also bring self-acceptance and a loving wife, this unique book is an ingenious celebration of diversity and the mysterious order that underlies all existence.

A quirky wonder of a book.

Pub Date: April 14, 2020

ISBN: 978-1-5011-6027-1

Page Count: 224

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

Review Posted Online: Jan. 2, 2020

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 1, 2020

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Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science...

A SHORT HISTORY OF NEARLY EVERYTHING

Bryson (I'm a Stranger Here Myself, 1999, etc.), a man who knows how to track down an explanation and make it confess, asks the hard questions of science—e.g., how did things get to be the way they are?—and, when possible, provides answers.

As he once went about making English intelligible, Bryson now attempts the same with the great moments of science, both the ideas themselves and their genesis, to resounding success. Piqued by his own ignorance on these matters, he’s egged on even more so by the people who’ve figured out—or think they’ve figured out—such things as what is in the center of the Earth. So he goes exploring, in the library and in company with scientists at work today, to get a grip on a range of topics from subatomic particles to cosmology. The aim is to deliver reports on these subjects in terms anyone can understand, and for the most part, it works. The most difficult is the nonintuitive material—time as part of space, say, or proteins inventing themselves spontaneously, without direction—and the quantum leaps unusual minds have made: as J.B.S. Haldane once put it, “The universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we can suppose.” Mostly, though, Bryson renders clear the evolution of continental drift, atomic structure, singularity, the extinction of the dinosaur, and a mighty host of other subjects in self-contained chapters that can be taken at a bite, rather than read wholesale. He delivers the human-interest angle on the scientists, and he keeps the reader laughing and willing to forge ahead, even over their heads: the human body, for instance, harboring enough energy “to explode with the force of thirty very large hydrogen bombs, assuming you knew how to liberate it and really wished to make a point.”

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective.

Pub Date: May 6, 2003

ISBN: 0-7679-0817-1

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Broadway

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2003

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