FIRE ON EARTH

DOOMSDAY, DINOSAURS, AND HUMANKIND

Here is an able summary of the growing body of evidence that Earth has sustained a number of collisions with various large objects from space. John Gribbin (In the Beginning, 1993, etc.) and his wife are a versatile British team of popular-science writers, and the story of asteroid collisions calls on their wide range of scientific knowledge. The discovery of high concentrations of the element iridium (rare on Earth, but common in meteors) in the geological strata marking the end of the Cretaceous Period led a team of chemists and geologists to the conclusion that a large meteor impact had occurred at that time, probably causing the death of the dinosaurs. This theory initially met with widespread skepticism, but the evidence for it has continued to accumulate. The authors summarize the Tunguska event, a probable meteor impact in Siberia in 1908, and another that took place in the same region in 1947. There have been a few spectacular near- misses—one fireball seen over Montana in 1972, another over the Pacific in 1994. Impact craters on the moon and other planets testify that over geological time spans these events are far from rare. And the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy with Jupiter made it abundantly clear how powerful such a collision would be. The volume of space around the Earth as well as beyond our solar system contains a large number of comets, meteors, and small asteroids. Large objects, the size of the dinosaur killer, seem to arrive with a periodicity on the order of 30 million years. The Gribbins also discuss the possibility of a periodic swarm of smaller objects every few thousand years, causing widespread damage and disrupting civilization. Finally, they discuss various plans being made to detect and possibly deflect an incoming object—concluding that such efforts are unlikely to be of value in the foreseeable future. A well-written and comprehensive discussion of a sobering but inevitably fascinating subject.

Pub Date: July 1, 1996

ISBN: 0-312-14335-4

Page Count: 256

Publisher: St. Martin's

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 1996

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Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science...

A SHORT HISTORY OF NEARLY EVERYTHING

Bryson (I'm a Stranger Here Myself, 1999, etc.), a man who knows how to track down an explanation and make it confess, asks the hard questions of science—e.g., how did things get to be the way they are?—and, when possible, provides answers.

As he once went about making English intelligible, Bryson now attempts the same with the great moments of science, both the ideas themselves and their genesis, to resounding success. Piqued by his own ignorance on these matters, he’s egged on even more so by the people who’ve figured out—or think they’ve figured out—such things as what is in the center of the Earth. So he goes exploring, in the library and in company with scientists at work today, to get a grip on a range of topics from subatomic particles to cosmology. The aim is to deliver reports on these subjects in terms anyone can understand, and for the most part, it works. The most difficult is the nonintuitive material—time as part of space, say, or proteins inventing themselves spontaneously, without direction—and the quantum leaps unusual minds have made: as J.B.S. Haldane once put it, “The universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we can suppose.” Mostly, though, Bryson renders clear the evolution of continental drift, atomic structure, singularity, the extinction of the dinosaur, and a mighty host of other subjects in self-contained chapters that can be taken at a bite, rather than read wholesale. He delivers the human-interest angle on the scientists, and he keeps the reader laughing and willing to forge ahead, even over their heads: the human body, for instance, harboring enough energy “to explode with the force of thirty very large hydrogen bombs, assuming you knew how to liberate it and really wished to make a point.”

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective.

Pub Date: May 6, 2003

ISBN: 0-7679-0817-1

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Broadway

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2003

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Ackerman writes with a light but assured touch, her prose rich in fact but economical in delivering it. Fans of birds in all...

THE GENIUS OF BIRDS

Science writer Ackerman (Ah-Choo!: The Uncommon Life of Your Common Cold, 2010, etc.) looks at the new science surrounding avian intelligence.

The takeaway: calling someone a birdbrain is a compliment. And in any event, as Ackerman observes early on, “intelligence is a slippery concept, even in our own species, tricky to define and tricky to measure.” Is a bird that uses a rock to break open a clamshell the mental equivalent of a tool-using primate? Perhaps that’s the wrong question, for birds are so unlike humans that “it’s difficult for us to fully appreciate their mental capabilities,” given that they’re really just small, feathered dinosaurs who inhabit a wholly different world from our once-arboreal and now terrestrial one. Crows and other corvids have gotten all the good publicity related to bird intelligence in recent years, but Ackerman, who does allow that some birds are brighter than others, points favorably to the much-despised pigeon as an animal that “can remember hundreds of different objects for long periods of time, discriminate between different painting styles, and figure out where it’s going, even when displaced from familiar territory by hundreds of miles.” Not bad for a critter best known for bespattering statues in public parks. Ackerman travels far afield to places such as Barbados and New Caledonia to study such matters as memory, communication, and decision-making, the last largely based on visual cues—though, as she notes, birds also draw ably on other senses, including smell, which in turn opens up insight onto “a weird evolutionary paradox that scientists have puzzled over for more than a decade”—a matter of the geometry of, yes, the bird brain.

Ackerman writes with a light but assured touch, her prose rich in fact but economical in delivering it. Fans of birds in all their diversity will want to read this one.

Pub Date: April 12, 2016

ISBN: 978-1-59420-521-7

Page Count: 336

Publisher: Penguin Press

Review Posted Online: Feb. 17, 2016

Kirkus Reviews Issue: March 1, 2016

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